Last modified on 16 May 2014, at 05:28

Haskell/Arrow tutorial

This chapter provides a hands-on tutorial about arrows, while the next one, Understanding arrows, is a more conceptual introduction. The two chapters may be read in any order.

Stephen's Arrow TutorialEdit

In this tutorial, I will create my own arrow, show how to use the arrow proc and do notation, and show how ArrowChoice works. We will end up with a simple game of Hangman.

First, we give a language pragma to enable the arrow do notation in the compiler:

{-# LANGUAGE Arrows #-}

And then, some imports:

module Main where
 
import Control.Arrow
import Control.Monad
import qualified Control.Category as Cat
import Data.List
import Data.Maybe
import System.Random

Any Haskell function can behave as an arrow, because there is an Arrow instance for the function type constructor (->). In this tutorial I will build a more interesting arrow than this, with the ability to maintain state (something that a plain Haskell function arrow cannot do). Arrows can produce all sorts of effects, including I/O, but we'll just explore some simple examples.

We'll call our new arrow Circuit to suggest that we can visualize arrows as circuits.[1]

Type definition for 'Circuit'Edit

A plain Haskell function treated as an arrow has type a -> b. Our Circuit arrow has two distinguishing features: First, we wrap it in a newtype declaration to cleanly define an Arrow instance. Second, in order for the circuit to maintain its own internal state, our arrow returns a replacement for itself along with the normal b output value.

newtype Circuit a b = Circuit { unCircuit :: a -> (Circuit a b, b) }

To make this an arrow, we need to make it an instance of both Category and Arrow. Throughout these definitions, we always replace each Circuit with the new version of itself that it has returned.

instance Cat.Category Circuit where
    id = Circuit $ \a -> (Cat.id, a)
    (.) = dot
      where
        (Circuit cir2) `dot` (Circuit cir1) = Circuit $ \a ->
            let (cir1', b) = cir1 a
                (cir2', c) = cir2 b
            in  (cir2' `dot` cir1', c)

The Cat.id function replaces itself with a copy of itself without maintaining any state. The purpose of the (.) function is to chain two arrows together from right to left. >>> and <<< are based on (.). It needs to replace itself with the `dot` of the two replacements returned by the execution of the argument Circuits.

instance Arrow Circuit where
    arr f = Circuit $ \a -> (arr f, f a)
    first (Circuit cir) = Circuit $ \(b, d) ->
        let (cir', c) = cir b
        in  (first cir', (c, d))

arr lifts a plain Haskell function as an arrow. Like with id, the replacement it gives is just itself, since a plain Haskell function can't maintain state.

Now we need a function to run a circuit:

runCircuit :: Circuit a b -> [a] -> [b]
runCircuit _   []     = []
runCircuit cir (x:xs) =
    let (cir',x') = unCircuit cir x
    in  x' : runCircuit cir' xs

For mapAccumL fans like me, this can alternatively be written as

runCircuit :: Circuit a b -> [a] -> [b]
runCircuit cir inputs =
    snd $ mapAccumL (\cir x -> unCircuit cir x) cir inputs

or, after eta-reduction, simply as:

runCircuit :: Circuit a b -> [a] -> [b]
runCircuit cir inputs = snd $ mapAccumL unCircuit cir inputs

'Circuit' primitivesEdit

Let's define a generalized accumulator to be the basis for our later work. accum' is a less general version of accum.

-- | Accumulator that outputs a value determined by the supplied function.
accum :: acc -> (a -> acc -> (b, acc)) -> Circuit a b
accum acc f = Circuit $ \input ->
    let (output, acc') = input `f` acc
    in  (accum acc' f, output)
 
-- | Accumulator that outputs the accumulator value.
accum' :: b -> (a -> b -> b) -> Circuit a b
accum' acc f = accum acc (\a b -> let b' = a `f` b in (b', b'))

Here is a useful concrete accumulator which keeps a running total of all the numbers passed to it as inputs.

total :: Num a => Circuit a a
total = accum' 0 (+)

We can run this circuit, like this:

*Main> runCircuit total [1,0,1,0,0,2]
[1,1,2,2,2,4]
*Main>

Arrow 'proc' notationEdit

Here is a statistical mean function:

mean1 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a
mean1 = (total &&& (const 1 ^>> total)) >>> arr (uncurry (/))

It maintains two accumulator cells, one for the sum, and one for the number of elements. It splits the input using the 'fanout' operator &&& and before the input of the second stream, it discards the input value and replaces it with 1.

const 1 ^>> total is shorthand for arr (const 1) >>> total. The first stream is the sum of the inputs. The second stream is the sum of 1 for each input (i.e. a count of the number of inputs). Then, it merges the two streams with a / operator.

Here is the same function, but written using arrow 'do' notation:

mean2 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a
mean2 = proc value -> do
    t <- total -< value
    n <- total -< 1
    returnA -< t / n

The 'do' notation describes the same relationship between the arrows, but in a totally different way. Instead of explicitly describing the wiring, you glue the arrows together using variable bindings and pure Haskell expressions, and the compiler works out all the arr, >>>, &&& stuff for you. Arrow 'do' notation also contains a pure 'let' statement exactly like the monadic one.

proc is the keyword that introduces arrow notation, and it binds the arrow input to a pattern ('value' in this example). Arrow statements in a do block take one of these forms:

  • variable binding pattern <- arrow -< pure expression giving arrow input
  • arrow -< pure expression giving arrow input

Like with monads, the do keyword is needed only to combine multiple lines using the variable binding patterns with <-. As with monads, the last line isn't allowed to have a variable binding pattern, and the output value of the last line is the output value of the arrow. returnA is an arrow just like 'total' is (in fact, returnA is just the identity arrow, defined as arr id).

Also like with monads, lines other than the last line may have no variable binding, and you get the effect only, discarding the return value. In 'Circuit', there would never be a point in doing this (since no state can escape except through the return value), but in many arrows there would be.

As you can see, for this example the 'proc' notation makes the code much more readable. Let's try them:

*Main> runCircuit mean1 [0,10,7,8]
[0.0,5.0,5.666666666666667,6.25]
*Main> runCircuit mean2 [0,10,7,8]
[0.0,5.0,5.666666666666667,6.25]
*Main> 

Hangman: Pick a wordEdit

Now for our Hangman game. Let's pick a word from a dictionary:

generator :: Random a => (a, a) -> StdGen -> Circuit () a
generator range rng = accum rng $ \() rng -> randomR range rng
 
dictionary = ["dog", "cat", "bird"]
 
pickWord :: StdGen -> Circuit () String
pickWord rng = proc () -> do
    idx <- generator (0, length dictionary-1) rng -< ()
    returnA -< dictionary !! idx

With 'generator', we're using the accumulator functionality to hold our random number generator. pickWord doesn't introduce anything new, except that the generator arrow is constructed by a Haskell function that takes arguments. Here is the output:

*Main> rng <- getStdGen
*Main> runCircuit (pickWord rng) [(), (), ()]
["dog","bird","dog"]
*Main> 

We will use this little arrow in a minute. It returns True the first time, then False forever afterwards:

oneShot :: Circuit () Bool
oneShot = accum True $ \_ acc -> (acc, False)
*Main> runCircuit oneShot [(), (), (), (), ()]
[True,False,False,False,False]

The game's main arrow will be executed repeatedly, and we would like to pick the word only once on the first iteration, and have it remember it for the rest of the game. Rather than just mask its output on subsequent loops, we'd prefer to actually run pickWord only once (since in a real implementation it could be very slow). However, as it stands, the data flow in a Circuit must go down all the paths of component arrows. In order to allow the data flow to go down one path and not another, we need to make our arrow an instance of ArrowChoice. Here's the minimal definition:

instance ArrowChoice Circuit where
    left orig@(Circuit cir) = Circuit $ \ebd -> case ebd of
        Left b -> let (cir', c) = cir b
                  in  (left cir', Left c)
        Right d -> (left orig, Right d)
 
getWord :: StdGen -> Circuit () String
getWord rng = proc () -> do
    -- If this is the first game loop, run pickWord. mPicked becomes Just <word>.
    -- On subsequent loops, mPicked is Nothing.
    firstTime <- oneShot -< ()
    mPicked <- if firstTime
        then do
            picked <- pickWord rng -< ()
            returnA -< Just picked
        else returnA -< Nothing
    -- An accumulator that retains the last 'Just' value.
    mWord <- accum' Nothing mplus -< mPicked
    returnA -< fromJust mWord

Because ArrowChoice is defined, the compiler now allows us to put an if after <-, and thus choose which arrow to execute (either run pickWord, or skip it). Note that this is not a normal Haskell if: The compiler implements this using ArrowChoice. The compiler also implements case here in the same way.

It is important to understand that none of the local name bindings, including the 'proc' argument, is in scope between <- and -< except in the condition of an if or case. For example, this is illegal:

{-
proc rng -> do
    idx <- generator (0, length dictionary-1) rng -< ()  -- ILLEGAL
    returnA -< dictionary !! idx
-}

The arrow to execute, here generator (0, length dictionary -1) rng, is evaluated in the scope that exists outside the 'proc' statement. rng does not exist in this scope. If you think about it, this makes sense, because the arrow is constructed at the beginning only (outside 'proc'). If it were constructed for each execution of the arrow, how would it keep its state?

Let's try getWord:

*Main> rng <- getStdGen
*Main> runCircuit (getWord rng) [(), (), (), (), (), ()]
["dog","dog","dog","dog","dog","dog"]
*Main>

Hangman: Main programEdit

Now here is the game:

hangman :: StdGen -> Circuit String [String]
hangman rng = proc userInput -> do
    word <- getWord rng -< ()
    let letter = listToMaybe userInput
    guessed <- updateGuess -< (word, letter)
    hung <- updateHung -< (word, letter)
    let hangman = "HangMan: ["++replicate hung '#'++replicate (5-hung) ' '++"]"
    returnA -<
        if word == guessed
            then                   [guessed, "You won!"]
            else
                if hung >= 5 then  [guessed, hangman, "You died!"]
                             else  [guessed, hangman]
  where
    updateGuess :: Circuit (String, Maybe Char) String
    updateGuess = accum' (repeat '_') $ \(word, letter) guess ->
        case letter of
            Just l  -> map (\(w, g) -> if w == l then w else g) (zip word guess)
            Nothing -> take (length word) guess
    updateHung :: Circuit (String, Maybe Char) Int
    updateHung = proc (word, letter) -> do
        total -< case letter of
            Just l  -> if l `elem` word then 0 else 1
            Nothing -> 0
 
main = do
    rng <- getStdGen
    interact (unlines .                     -- Concatenate lines out output
        ("Welcome to Arrow Hangman":) .     -- Prepend a greeting to the output
        concat . runCircuit (hangman rng) . -- Process the input lazily
        ("":) .                             -- Act as if the user pressed ENTER once at the start
        lines)                              -- Split input into lines

And here's an example session. For best results, compile the game and run it from a terminal rather than from GHCi:

Welcome to Arrow Hangman
___
HangMan: [     ]
a
___
HangMan: [#    ]
g
__g
HangMan: [#    ]
d
d_g
HangMan: [#    ]
o
dog
You won!

Advanced stuffEdit

In this section I will complete the coverage of arrow notation.

Combining arrow commands with a functionEdit

We implemented mean2 like this:

mean2 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a
mean2 = proc value -> do
    t <- total -< value
    n <- total -< 1
    returnA -< t / n

GHC defines a banana bracket syntax for combining arrow statements with a function that operates on arrows. (In Ross Paterson's paper [2] a form keyword is used, but GHC adopted the banana bracket instead.) Although there's no real reason to, we can write 'mean' like this:

mean3 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a
mean3 = proc value -> do
    (t, n) <- (| (&&&) (total -< value) (total -< 1) |)
    returnA -< t / n

The first item inside the (| ... |) is a function that takes any number of arrows as input and returns an arrow. Infix notation cannot be used here. It is followed by the arguments, which are in the form of proc statements. These statements may contain do and bindings with <- if you like. Each argument is translated into an arrow and given as an argument to the function (&&&).

You may ask, what is the point of this? We can combine arrows quite happily without the proc notation. Well, the point is that you get the convenience of using local variable bindings in the statements.

The banana brackets are in fact not required. The compiler is intelligent enough to assume that this is what you mean when you write it like this (note that infix notation is allowed here):

mean4 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a
mean4 = proc value -> do
    (t, n) <- (total -< value) &&& (total -< 1)
    returnA -< t / n

So why do we need the banana brackets? For situations where this plainer syntax is ambiguous. The reason is that the arrow part of a 'proc' command is not an ordinary Haskell expression. Recall that for arrows specified in proc statements, the following things hold true:

  • Local variable bindings are only allowed in the input expression after -<, and for the if and case condition. The arrow itself is interpreted in the scope that exists outside proc.
  • if and case statements are not plain Haskell. They are implemented using ArrowChoice.
  • Functions used to combine arrows are not normal Haskell either. They are shorthand for banana bracket notation.

Recursive bindingsEdit

At the risk of wearing out the mean example, here is yet another way to implement it using recursive bindings. In order for this to work, we'll need an arrow that delays its input by one step:

delay :: a -> Circuit a a
delay last = Circuit $ \this -> (delay this, last)

Here is what delay does:

*Main> runCircuit (delay 0) [5,6,7]
[0,5,6]
*Main> 

Here is our recursive version of mean:

mean5 :: Fractional a => Circuit a a 
mean5 = proc value -> do
    rec
        (lastTot, lastN) <- delay (0,0) -< (tot, n)
        let (tot, n) = (lastTot + value, lastN + 1)
        let mean = tot / n
    returnA -< mean

The rec block resembles a do block, except that

  • The last line can be, and usual is, a variable binding. It doesn't matter whether it's a let or a do-block binding with <-.
  • The rec block doesn't have a return value. var <- rec ... is illegal, and rec is not allowed to be the last element in a do block.
  • The use of variables is expected to form a cycle (otherwise there is no point in rec).

The machinery of rec is handled by the loop function of the ArrowLoop class, which we define for Circuit like this:

instance ArrowLoop Circuit where
    loop (Circuit cir) = Circuit $ \b ->
        let (cir', (c,d)) = cir (b,d)
        in  (loop cir', c)

Behind the scenes, the way it works is this:

  • Any variables defined in rec that are forward referenced in rec are looped around by passing them through the second tuple element of loop. Effectively the variable bindings and references to them can be in any order (but the order of arrow statements is significant in terms of effects).
  • Any variables defined in rec that are referenced from outside rec are returned in the first tuple element of loop.

It is important to understand that loop (and therefore rec) simply binds variables. It doesn't hold onto values and pass them back in the next invocation - 'delay' does this part. The cycle formed by the variable references must be broken by some sort of delay arrow or lazy evaluation, otherwise the code would die in an infinite loop as if you had written let a = a+1 in plain Haskell.

ArrowApplyEdit

As mentioned before, the arrow part of an arrow statement (before -<) can't contain any variables bound inside 'proc'. There is an alternative operator, -<< which removes this restriction. It requires the arrow to implement the ArrowApply typeclass.


NotesEdit

  1. This interpretation of arrows-as-circuits is loosely based on the Yampa functional reactive programming library.
  2. Ross Paterson's Paper specifying arrow 'proc' notation