Marketing proficiency (alpha = 0.86)Edit
Although certain items of some scales were developed specifically for the Japanese context, many were derived from existing validated scales. Respondents answered all questions using a Likert-type scale ranging from 0 to 10; field research suggested that an 11-point scale was appropriate for studying Japanese management practices because a 100 percent grading system is used in most Japanese schools.
Marketing proficiency includes activities such as evaluating consumers and competitors, determining market characteristics and trends, carrying out marketing research, test marketing, and executing product launch.
Please circle the answer that best represents your judgment about each aspect on "how things actually were during the development of this project" rather than on "how things ought to be". Please indicate how well or adequately your firm undertook each activity in this product development process—relative to "how you think it should have been done". (0 = done very poorly or mistakenly omitted altogether, 10 = done excellently)
- Determining market characteristics and trends. (0.86)
- Conducting a detailed study of market potential, customer preferences, purchase process, etc. (0.86)
- Appraising competitors and their products—both existing and potential. (1.00)
- Identifying "appeal" characteristics that would differentiate and sell the product. (0.51)
- Executing test marketing programs in line with the plans for commercialization. (0.63)
- Launching and introducing this product into the marketplace—selling, promoting and distributing. (0.67)
- Song/Montoya-Weiss (2001): The Effect of Perceived Technological Uncertainty on Japanese New Product Development. Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp. 61-80.
Some items might be formative. The last items have low factor loadings.