Last modified on 21 May 2015, at 10:14

Fundamentals of Human Nutrition

Welcome to the Fundamentals of Human NutritionEdit

Introduction Fundamentals of Human Nutrition

Introduction

This wikibook is part of the UF Food Science and Human Nutrition Department course, Fundamentals of Human Nutrition.

The instructor of this course has a PhD in human nutrition and works in both nutrition education and research. The aim of this textbook is to provide an open, trustworthy educational resource on international human nutrition. The instructor has taught at both the undergraduate and professional levels, with a strong emphasis on the incorporation of nutrition knowledge in health care and disease prevention. Their research expertise is in both nutritional biochemistry, community nutrition, and nutrition in higher education.

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Book Outline

Section 1: Introduction to Nutrition

  1. You Are What You Eat
    1. Defining Nutrition
      1. Malnutrition
      2. Macronutrient basics
      3. Micronutrient basics
  2. Nutritional Science
    1. Nutrition Research
  3. History of Vitamins and Minerals
    1. Early epidemiological findings
      1. Disease theories
      2. Food cures
    2. Barriers to discovery
    3. Economics of nutritional deficiency
    4. Discovery of vitamins
      1. Key researchers
      2. Identification
      3. Isolation

Section 2: Dietary Guidelines

  1. Average Macronutrient Distribution Range
    1. Macronutrients
    2. Food groups
  2. Dietary Reference Intakes
    1. Macronutrients
    2. Vitamins
    3. Minerals
  3. International Dietary Guidelines

Section 3: Nutrient Processing

  1. Gastrointestinal system
    1. Structures
    2. Accessory organs
  2. Digestion
    1. Phases
    2. Mechanical processes
    3. Secretions
      1. Salivary
      2. Gastric
      3. Pancreatic
    4. Regulation
      1. Hormones
      2. Nervous system
  3. Absorption
    1. Structures
    2. Transport
      1. Diffusion
      2. Facilitated diffusion
      3. Active
    3. Circulatory systems
      1. Blood
      2. Lymph
  4. Gut health
    1. Cellular turnover
      1. Fiber
    2. Intestinal bacteria
    3. Problems in digestion and absorption
      1. GERD
      2. Irritable bowel disease
      3. Food intolerance

Section 4: Macronutrients in the Diet: Carbohydrates

  1. Defining Carbohydrates
    1. Simple sugars
    2. Complex carbohydrates
      1. Starch
      2. Fiber
  2. Storage
  3. Functions
    1. Sugar and Starch
      1. Energy
      2. Lipid metabolism
    2. Fiber
      1. Glucose balance
      2. Gut health
      3. Cholesterol balance
  4. Sugar's Bad rap
    1. Diabetes
    2. Dental Caries
    3. Hyperactivity
    4. Obesity
  5. Dietary intake
    1. Excess
    2. Low-carbohydrate diets

Section 5: Macronutrients in the Diet: Protein

  1. Defining Proteins
    1. Structure
      1. Amino acids
      2. Folding
  2. Protein quality
      1. Essential amino acids
        1. Complete proteins
      2. Limiting amino acids
      3. Bioavailability
  3. Synthesis
    1. Protein turnover
      1. Amino acid pool
      2. Nitrogen balance
  4. Functions
    1. Cell and tissue synthesis
    2. Enzymes
    3. Hormones
    4. Fluid balance
    5. Acid-base regulation
    6. Transporters
    7. Antibodies
    8. Energy and Glucose
  5. Dietary intake
    1. Excess
    2. Insufficiency

Section 6: Macronutrients in the Diet: Lipids

  1. Defining lipids
    1. Fatty acids
      1. Saturation
    2. Triglycerides
    3. Phospholipids and sterols
  2. Lipid storage
  3. Functions
    1. Essential fatty acids
      1. Omega-6 fatty acids
      2. Omega-3 fatty acids
    2. Triglycerides
      1. Energy
      2. Insulation
      3. Protection of organs
    3. Phospholipids
      1. Cell membranes
      2. Emulsifier
    4. Sterols
      1. Cell structure
      2. Bile
      3. Hormones
  4. Lipid intake
    1. Excess
    2. Deficiency
      1. Essential fatty acid deficiency
    3. Omega-3 fatty acids and health

Section 7: Fat soluble vitamins

  1. Vitamin A
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  2. Vitamin D
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  3. Vitamin E
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  4. Vitamin K
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity

Section 8: Water soluble vitamins

  1. Thiamin
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  2. Riboflavin
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  3. Niacin
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  4. Folate
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  5. Vitamin B12
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  6. Vitamin B6
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  7. Pantothenic acid
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity
  8. Vitamin C
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Deficiency
    5. Toxicity

Section 9: Water and electrolytes

  1. Sodium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  2. Chloride
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  3. Potassium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance

Section 10: Mineralizing minerals

  1. Calcium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  2. Phosphorous
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  3. Magnesium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance

Section 11: Trace minerals

  1. Iron
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  2. Zinc
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  3. Iodine
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  4. Selenium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
    3. Requirements
    4. Imbalance
  5. Copper
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
  6. Manganese
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
  7. Chromium
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
  8. Molybdenum
    1. Sources
    2. Functions
  9. Fluoride
    1. Sources
    2. Functions

Section 12: Metabolism

  1. Glucose
    1. Glycolysis
    2. Gluconeogenesis
    3. Lactic Acid
  2. Amino acids
    1. Glucogenic
    2. Ketogenic
    3. Urea
  3. Glycerol and fatty acids
    1. Lipolysis
    2. Liponeogenesis
    3. Ketosis
  4. Citric Acid cycle
  5. Electron transport chain
  6. Alcohol Metabolism

Section 13: Energy and Body Composition

  1. Energy expenditure
    1. Components
    2. Estimating requirements
  2. Body composition
    1. Measuring
  3. Weight management
    1. Underweight
      1. Eating disorders
    2. Overweight and obesity
      1. Global statistics
      2. Causes
      3. Health risks
    3. Interventions
      1. Interventions
      2. Medications
      3. Surgery

Section 14: Fundamentals of Human Nutrition/Nutrition and Fitness/Nutrition and Fitness

  1. Fitness basics
    1. Types of fitness
    2. Reccomendations
  2. Energy systems
    1. Anaerobic
      1. CP-ATP
      2. Lactate
    2. Aerobic
  3. Diet and Fitness
    1. Carbohydrate loading
      1. Protein needs
      2. Micronutrient needs
        1. Anemia
    2. Hydration
      1. Types of fluid replacement
      2. Reccomendations
      3. Dehydration
      4. Heat Stroke
    3. Ergogenic Aids
      1. Interventions
      2. Medications
      3. Surgery

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