Last modified on 23 August 2013, at 11:52

Fundamentals of Human Nutrition

Welcome to the Fundamentals of Human NutritionEdit

Introduction Fundamentals of Human Nutrition

Introduction

This wikibook is part of the Coursera course, Fundamentals of Human Nutrition. The wikibook project will be offered to those students participating in the synthesis of learning level within the course. Students enrolled in the Coursera course will be permitted to contribute to the book as part of the active learning within the course. Their contributions will represent the global perspective of each of the book topics listed below. The students come from a variety of locations, different age groups and professional backgrounds. We ask all of the participants to follow the Wikibooks contributions guidelines and provide the citations for all materials.

The instructor of this course, and moderator of the Wikibook, has a PhD in human nutrition and works in both nutrition education and research. The aim of this textbook is to provide an open, trustworthy educational resource on international human nutrition. The instructor has taught at both the undergraduate and professional levels, with a strong emphasis on the incorporation of nutrition knowledge in health care and disease prevention. Their research expertise is in both nutritional biochemistry, community nutrition, and nutrition in higher education.

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Book Outline

  1. Introduction to Nutrition
    1. You Are What You Eat
    2. Defining Nutrition
      1. Malnutrition
      2. Macronutrient basics
      3. Micronutrient basics
    3. Nutritional Science
      1. Nutrition Research
    4. Dietary Guidelines
      1. Food Based Guidelines
      2. Macronutrients
      3. Food groups
    5. Dietary Reference Intakes
      1. Macronutrients
      2. Vitamins
      3. Minerals
    6. International Dietary Guidelines
  2. Macronutrients in the Diet: Carbohydrates
    1. Defining Carbohydrates
      1. Simple sugars
      2. Complex carbohydrates
        1. Starch
        2. Fiber
    2. Storage
    3. Functions
      1. Sugar and Starch
        1. Energy
        2. Lipid metabolism
      2. Fiber
        1. Glucose balance
        2. Gut health
        3. Cholesterol balance
    4. Sugar's Bad rap
      1. Diabetes
      2. Dental Caries
      3. Hyperactivity
      4. Obesity
    5. Dietary intake
      1. Excess
      2. Low-carbohydrate diets
  3. Macronutrients in the Diet: Protein
    1. Defining Proteins
      1. Structure
        1. Amino acids
        2. Folding
    2. Protein quality
        1. Essential amino acids
          1. Complete proteins
        2. Limiting amino acids
        3. Bioavailability
    3. Synthesis
      1. Protein turnover
        1. Amino acid pool
        2. Nitrogen balance
    4. Functions
      1. Cell and tissue synthesis
      2. Enzymes
      3. Hormones
      4. Fluid balance
      5. Acid-base regulation
      6. Transporters
      7. Antibodies
      8. Energy and Glucose
    5. Dietary intake
      1. Excess
      2. Insufficiency
  4. Macronutrients in the Diet: Lipids
    1. Defining lipids
      1. Fatty acids
        1. Saturation
      2. Triglycerides
      3. Phospholipids and sterols
    2. Lipid storage
    3. Functions
      1. Essential fatty acids
        1. Omega-6 fatty acids
        2. Omega-3 fatty acids
      2. Triglycerides
        1. Energy
        2. Insulation
        3. Protection of organs
      3. Phospholipids
        1. Cell membranes
        2. Emulsifier
      4. Sterols
        1. Cell structure
        2. Bile
        3. Hormones
    4. Lipid intake
      1. Excess
      2. Deficiency
        1. Essential fatty acid deficiency
      3. Omega-3 fatty acids and health
  5. Nutrient Processing
    1. Gastrointestinal system
      1. Structures
      2. Accessory organs
    2. Digestion
      1. Phases
      2. Mechanical processes
      3. Secretions
        1. Salivary
        2. Gastric
        3. Pancreatic
      4. Regulation
        1. Hormones
        2. Nervous system
    3. Absorption
      1. Structures
      2. Transport
        1. Diffusion
        2. Facilitated diffusion
        3. Active
      3. Circulatory systems
        1. Blood
        2. Lymph
    4. Gut health
      1. Cellular turnover
        1. Fiber
      2. Intestinal bacteria
      3. Problems in digestion and absorption
        1. GERD
        2. Irritable bowel disease
        3. Food intolerance
  6. History of Vitamins and Minerals
    1. Early epidemiological findings
      1. Disease theories
      2. Food cures
    2. Barriers to discovery
    3. Economics of nutritional deficiency
    4. Discovery of vitamins
      1. Key researchers
      2. Identification
      3. Isolation
  7. Vitamins
    1. Fat soluble vitamins
      1. Vitamin A
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      2. Vitamin D
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      3. Vitamin E
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      4. Vitamin K
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
    2. Water soluble vitamins
      1. Thiamin
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      2. Riboflavin
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      3. Niacin
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      4. Folate
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      5. Vitamin B12
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      6. Vitamin B6
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      7. Pantothenic acid
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
      8. Vitamin C
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Deficiency
        5. Toxicity
  8. Minerals
    1. Water and electrolytes
      1. Sodium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      2. Chloride
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      3. Potassium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
    2. Mineralizing minerals
      1. Calcium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      2. Phosphorous
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      3. Magnesium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
    3. Trace minerals
      1. Iron
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      2. Zinc
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      3. Iodine
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      4. Selenium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
        3. Requirements
        4. Imbalance
      5. Copper
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
      6. Manganese
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
      7. Chromium
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
      8. Molybdenum
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
      9. Fluoride
        1. Sources
        2. Functions
  9. Metabolism
    1. Glucose
      1. Glycolysis
      2. Gluconeogenesis
    2. Amino acids
      1. Glucogenic
      2. Ketogenic
      3. Urea
    3. Glycerol and fatty acids
      1. Lipolysis
      2. Liponeogenesis
      3. Ketosis
    4. Citric Acid cycle
    5. Electron transport chain
    6. Lactic acids
  10. Energy and Body Composition
    1. Energy expenditure
      1. Components
      2. Estimating requirements
    2. Body composition
      1. Measuring
    3. Weight management
      1. Underweight
        1. Eating disorders
      2. Overweight and obesity
        1. Global statistics
        2. Causes
        3. Health risks
      3. Interventions
        1. Interventions
        2. Medications
        3. Surgery

== Bibliography

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