Foundations and Assessment of Education/Edition 1/Foundations Table of Contents/Chapter 8/Chapter FAQ

FAQ: Curriculum


Sarah Butler



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Learning TargetsEdit

• The reader will be able to define the "Three R's".

• The reader will be able to define the "Fourth R".

• The reader will be able to define the difference between Formal and Hidden Curriculum and describe how it effects students.

• The reader will be able to define standardized testing and describe its pros and cons.

• The reader will be able to define AP and IB classes and describe how they effect teachers and students.

• The reader will be able to define College Preparatory education and describe its main targets.

• The reader will be able to define Vocational education and describe its main targets.

Frequently Asked QuestionsEdit

What are "The "Three R's" and how do they relate to teaching?

In this case, the "Three R's" were originally quoted as being "reading, 'riting and 'rithmetic"(American Heritage). Reading, writing, and arithmetic were originally thought to be the basis of all education. Since then, teaching has evolved to a point where these are the core, but many other equally important subjects are taught.

For more information on the Three R's of the Environment, click:

http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0775891.html



Is there a "Fourth R?"

The concept of a "Fourth R" is debated among teachers. Some of the suggestions relating to academics are Relationship, Rhythm (music), and Art (Olah, 2009). Most teachers see all of these as being equally important to the original "Three R's." These three hopeful additions are things that are necessary for one to become a well-rounded individual. Three other very well known R's that many teachers present to their students are "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle." The environment is one of the most pertinent topics today and is discussed in many classrooms between a teacher and his or her students (Olah, 2009).


What is "Formal Curriculum"? What is a "Hidden Curriculum"? How do they differ?

A formal curriculum is the typical lesson plan that a teacher makes on any given day which covers all of the academic topics that will be covered in class. A "hidden curriculum" (also referred to as informal curriculum or character education), on the other hand, is an implied curriculum which addresses character traits. Formal curriculum is explicit to the student because its goals are made clear by the teacher before teaching begins. "Hidden curriculum" is considered implicit because it happens beneath the surface of a lesson and is meant to subconsciously improve students' character (Bibbs, Jr, 2009).

To read a blog entry about Hidden Curriculum by a Georgetown professor with comments from her students, click:

https://digitalcommons.georgetown.edu/blogs/phil-157-fall2008/2007/09/15/the-hidden-curriculum/


How does "hidden curriculum" affect students?

"Hidden curriculum" allows teachers the ability to not only teach their chosen lesson, but also other life skills. "Hidden curriculum" is often referred to as "character education" because that is precisely what it does (Bibbs, Jr, 2009). Through this implicit instruction, teachers can impart important relationship, time management, and social responsibility skills on to their students.


What is a "standardized test"?

A standardized test is a "standard" test on specific subject matter that is given and graded in a uniform way (Jones, 2009). Examples of such tests are the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL's), the ERB, the PSAT, the SAT, the PRAXIS I and the PRAXIS II, and AP exams. These types of tests never differ no matter what school, city, or state they are administered in.


What are the advantages and disadvantages of standardized testing?

In the academic world, there are many arguments for and against standardized testing. Some feel that the tests are "too standard" to truly assess students, while others feel that all students need to be assessed the same way. The main argument for standardized testing is cooperation; cooperation not only at the teacher:student level, but at many other levels (Jones, 2009). The main argument against standardized testing is the view that schools narrow their curriculum to support the test (Jones, 2009).


What is the view of those who support standardized testing?

There are many who support standardized testing as the best way to assess students. One point of support is the small amount to time that it takes to grade these types of tests, especially when using Scantron sheets which are read by a computer (Marcotte, 2009). Supporters also believe that standardized tests create the highest levels of accountability for teachers.

For a Washington Post article about the history of standardized testing, click:

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/13/AR2006111301007.html


What is the view of those who oppose standardized testing?

There are also many who oppose standardized testing. The main view of the opposition is that a single test is not enough to assess the depth of students' knowledge (Marcotte, 2009). Those who oppose feel that students who only experience standardized testing are denied access to a more diverse curriculum (Marcotte, 2009). Many people feel that standardized testing has caused a “dumbing” down on the American education system (Kohn, 2000, p29).


What are AP and IB classes? How do they affect students and teachers?

AP classes, or Advanced Placement classes, are classes in which high school students complete college level work for the chance to receive college credit (based on a qualifying test score) (Gauss, 2009). IB classes, or International Baccalaureate classes, are those in which the students study multiple topics and see how they relate (Gauss, 2009). Both of these types of classes are at a much higher level than typical high school classes and require not only brighter students but better teachers as well.

For a specific College Board description of AP classes, click:

http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/about.html

For the International Baccalaureate Organization official website, click

http://www.ibo.org/



What is College Preparatory education? Who are its main targets?

College preparatory education is a course of study that prepares students for learning at a college level and sets them up to be successful in college (Lewis, 2009). Its main targets are low-income and minority students because those groups are the two that are least likely to attend college (Lewis, 2009). The goal of college prep programs is to help these and all students succede in college. Classes that are typical to the college prep course work would be Honors and AP classes.


What is Vocational education? What are its main targets?

Vocational education teaches students skills that will help them attain careers (Lewis, 2009). Vocational education is for students who will not be attending college immediately after high school or attending college at all (Lewis, 2009). Classes that are typical to the vocational education course work would be Cosmetology and Nursing classes.

For the US Government website about vocational education, click:

http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/index.html


What are advantages and disadvantages to college preparatory courses?

The main advantage of college prep courses is that they truly prepare the students for the difficulty and amount of work that they will encounter in college (Filson, 2009). Another advantage is, if the student scores well enough on his or her AP exam, he or she can receive college credit for that course. The main disadvantage of college prep courses is that some students find that they are still not prepared to handle college courses (Filson, 2009).


What are advantages and disadvantages of vocational education courses?

The main advantage of vocational education is that it is a perfect option for those students who are not interested in attending college, but want a job instead (Filson, 2009). The main disadvantage of vocational education is that is often receives a negative connotation because the students who chose this track often did not do as well in high school as their college prep counterparts (Filson, 2009).

AssessmentEdit

1. What is vocational education?

A. Education that prepares students for college.
B. Education that prepares students for a career.
C. Education typical to a private school.
D. Education typical to a public elementary school.


2. What are the "Fourth R's" as related to education?

A. Relationships, Rhythm, Art.
B. Reading, 'Riting, 'Rithmetic.
C. Reduce, Replace, Refine.
D. Reading, 'Riting, Randomness.


3. If Michael, a high school student, is enrolled in AP Environmental Science, AP United States History, and Honor English Literature, he is most likely to be following what course of study?

A. Formal Curriculum.
B. Hidden Curriculum.
C. Character Education.
D. College Preparatory.


4. Mrs. Davids is making a lesson plan that outlines exactly what her students will be covering in class the next day. It includes specifics about the topic that they have been studying for the past week. What type of curriculum is this lesson plan made up of?

A. Hidden Curriculum.
B. Formal Curriculum.
C. Specific Curriculum.
D. College preparatory Curriculum.


ReferencesEdit

Matthews, Jay (2006, November, 14). Just whose idea was all this testing? fueled by technology, nation's attempt to create a

level playing field has had a rocky history. The Washington Post, Retrieved June 3, 2009, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/

(2009). Office of vocational and adult education (OVAE). Retrieved June 3, 2009, from ED.gov Web site: http://www.ed.gov/

(2009). International Baccalaureate. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from International Baccalaureate (IB) Web site:

http://www.ibo.org/

(2009). Advanced Placement Program. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from College Board Web site: http://www.collegeboard.com/

Voke, Prof. Heather (2007, September 15). [Weblog] The Hidden Curriculum. Civic Engagement and Education. Retrieved June 3,

2009, from https://digitalcommons.georgetown.edu/blogs/

The Three R's of the Environment. (2007). In Fact Monster [Web]. Pearson Education, Inc.. Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

http://www.factmonster.com

Bibbs, Jr., Aubrey W. (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org.

Olah, Krista (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Jones, Arielle (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Gauss, Ken (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from Wikibooks

Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Lewis, Cassaundra (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Marcotte, Angela (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Filson, Chad (2009, May 15). Foundations and assessment of education in today's schools . Retrieved June 3, 2009, from

Wikibooks Web site: http://en.wikibooks.org

Kohn, A. (2000). The case against standardized testing: Raising scores, ruining the schools. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

(Ed.) (1997). Three R's. In The American Heritage® Dictionary of Idioms (Vol. Third, pp. 656). : Houghton Mifflin Reference Books. :Retrieved September 21, 2008,

from http://books.google.com/
York, Alexandra.


AnswersEdit

1. B, 2. A, 3. D, 4. B


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Last modified on 6 March 2011, at 06:36