Folksprak/Grammar/Particle

ParticleEdit

Using particles, you narrow the meaning of verbs.

  • De mannen ga in. (EN The men go inside.) [Particle]


Particles are preceded by the object of the verb.

  • De kild werp de ball up. (EN The child throws the ball up.)


Particle as PrepositionEdit

Many particles may have an object, shortening the stem vowel of the particle. Then the particle is called a preposition. The shortening of the stem vowel will not be indicated in Folksprak, but it is still visible in Fůlkspræk. For instance, the particle in vs. the preposition ĭn.

  • De mannen ga in de hus. (EN The men go inside the house.) [in as preposition]


Prepositions are preceded by the object of the verb.

  • De kild werp de ball up de tak. (EN The child throws the ball up on the roof.)


particle as adverbEdit

Particles may precede a preposition like an adverb. Then they narrow the meaning of the preposition.

  • De kild werp de ball up in de windog. (EN The child throws the ball up into the window.)


Using the prepositions to and bi, you can differentiate between aimed and non-aimed movement / position.

  • De ball flyg up to de tak. (EN The ball flies up onto the roof.)
  • De ball ligg up bi de tak. (EN The ball lies above on the roof.)


Using the suffix -en an adverb is formed. Doing so, the stem vowel is oftened shortened and therefore the consonantic stem ending is doubled.

  • De ball ligg uppen. (EN The ball lies above.)


If the particle with the suffix -en precedes a preposition, this preposition is the beginning of a new adverbial phrase.

  • De ball ligg uppen up de tak. (EN The ball lies above, on the roof.)


In some cases the form of the adverb changes even more.

  • De mann liv fern. (EN The man lives far away.) [ferr -> fern]


Particle as AdjectiveEdit

Using the suffix -er you can form an adjective.

  • de upper ball (EN the upper ball)


In some cases the form of the adjective changes even more.

  • de forder mannen (EN the man in front) [fůr -> fůrđĕr]


Particle as PrefixEdit

Wird die Partikel vor das Verb gesetzt, also als Vorsilbe benutzt (wobei die Betonung des eigentlichen Verbes abgeschwächt wird), so wird die Bedeutung des Verbs noch stärker eingeengt.

When adding a particle in front of a verb, the verb's meaing get's even more narrowed. Then the accent lies back on the verb stem.

  • De mann gev boken ut. (EN The man distriutes books.) [particle]
  • De mann utgev boken. (EN The man publishes books.) [prefix]


Das Verb erfährt eine noch stärkere Einengung der Bedeutung, wenn die als Vorsilbe gebrauchte Partikel verkürzt und nicht mehr betont wird (wobei die Betonung des eigentlichen Verbes wieder verstärkt wird). In Folksprak wird der Stammvokal der Partikel als e dargestellt.

  • De mann forsta de grupp. (EN The man leads the group.) [stressed prefix]
  • De mann fersta de grupp. (EN The man understands the group.) [unstressed prefix]


In rare cases the form of the prefix changes.

  • De mann utgev boken. (EN The man publishes books.) [stressed prefix]
  • De mann ergev si. (EN The man surrenders.) [unstressed prefix]


Some combinations of prefixes are not allowed.

  • befertahtige > fertahtige (EN to think bad about someone)
  • fergebruke > ferbruke (EN to consume)


Particles (North, South ...)Edit

The directions nord, sud, west, ost are treated like particles.

  • De mann ga nord / sud / west / ost. (EN The man goes north / south / west / east.)

When used as adjectives, they end in -ern.

  • nordern sang (EN northern song)
  • sudern comfort (EN southern comfort)
  • western film (EN western film)
  • ostern (EN eastern)

In proper names they appear shortened, i. e. the ending -ern turns to -er. nordern gets even more shortened to nor.

  • Norwegen (EN Norway)
  • Suderland (EN Southerland (actor))
  • Westerland (EN Westerland)
  • Osterrik (EN Austria)
Last modified on 17 December 2011, at 02:22