First Aid/Appendix A: Glossary


Abrasion
A superficial wound in which the topmost layers of the skin are scraped off
ABCs
Airway, breathing and circulation
AED
Automated External Defibrillator
Airway
The passages which transfer air from the outside environment to the lungs; the tracha, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli
Artery
A blood vessel carrying blood away from the heart; contains oxygen-rich, high-pressure blood in the systemic cardiorespiratory system
Avulsion
A tearing away of a section of skin from the layers of tissue beneath it
Bystander
Any person, trained or untrained, who assists in an emergency situation, but not as part of a duty of employment
Capillary
The smallest blood vessels in the body; the skin is rife with capillaries
Carotid artery
The main artery providing blood supply to the head.
The carotid artery is the largest artery shown here; click for a larger version.
Causation
Determination of whether the defendant's actions are causally linked to any harm
Circulation
The movement of blood throughout the body; performed by the heart
Consciousness (level of)
A state of awareness or lack thereof
Consent
A legal condition whereby a person can be said to have given consent based upon an appreciation and understanding of the facts and implications of an action
CPR
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation
Cyanosis
The bluish coloration of the skin due to the presence of deoxygenated blood near the skin surface; occurs when the oxygen saturation of arterial blood falls below 85%
Defibrillation
Delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator
Diabetes
a disease causing an inability to regulate the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood
Distal
The point on a limb furthest from its point of attachment to the body
Duty of care
A legal obligation imposed on an individual requiring that they exercise a reasonable standard of care while performing any acts that could foreseeably harm others
EMS
Emergency Medical System or Emergency Medical Services
History
One of the 3 parts of a secondary survey
Hypoxia
A condition in which insufficient oxygen reaches body tissue
Incision
A clean cut caused by a sharp-edged object
Insulin
a hormone that allows glucose to travel from the bloodstream into the cells
Laceration
Irregular wounds caused by a blunt impact to soft tissue which lies over hard tissue; tearing of skin
Landmark
The location of compressions; on the midline of the chest, even with the nipples
Liability
A legal doctrine that makes a person responsible for the damage and loss caused by their acts and omissions regardless of culpability; the requirements to prove liability are a)a duty of care exists b)the standard of care was breached c)causation exists
Myocardial Infarction
Heart attack; bleeding or blockage cuts off blood flow to part of the heart muscle
Nailbed
The tissue under the nail; pinching the nail and observing the blood return to the nailbed is a good test of circulation at that location
Oedema (Edema)
Swelling in the lower legs and ankles. Oedema is caused by a fluid build-up in the body.
Proximal
The point on a limb closest to its point of attachment to the body
Puncture
A wound caused by an object puncturing the skin
Semi-prone position
A position which keeps the tongue from obstructing the airway and allows any fluids to drain from the mouth (aka recovery position)
Standard of Care
The degree of prudence and caution required of an individual who is under a duty of care; the requirements of the standard are closely dependent on circumstances
Tachycardia
A rapid pulse generally a pulse over 100 at rest
Vein
A blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart; most veins carry low-oxygen blood
Last modified on 19 October 2010, at 01:54