Esperanto: A Complete and Comprehensive Grammar/Verbs

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Esperanto has three tenses and three moods, which can be easily determined by looking at the ending of a verb. Verbs are not conjugated for person or number, only tense and mood.

  • Present tense, with the ending -as. Mi kantas = I sing. Ili parolas = they speak.
  • Future tense ends in -os. Mi kantos = I will sing. Ŝi kuiros = she will cook.
  • Past tense -is. Mi kantis = I sang.
  • Infinitive mood -i. Kanti = To sing.
  • Conditional mood -us. Se mi kantus = If I would sing.
  • Jussive mood -u. = Kantu! = Sing! Enlitiĝu! = Go to bed!

The jussive mood, although primarily used to give commands, is also used to indicate that the subject of the sentence has an obligation or should do something. For instance: Mi tajpu la leteron means "I should type the letter". Compare this to Mi devas tajpi la leteron, which suggests more urgency ("I must type the letter").

Last modified on 25 January 2012, at 17:24