Electronics Fundamentals/Semi Conductor Devices/Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)/Triac
TRIAC, from Triode for Alternating Current, is a genericized tradename for an electronic component which can conduct current in either direction when it is triggered (turned on), and is formally called a bidirectional triode thyristor or bilateral triode thyristor.
A TRIAC is approximately equivalent to two complementary unilateral thyristors (one is anode triggered and another is cathode triggered SCR) joined in inverse parallel (paralleled but with the polarity reversed) and with their gates connected together. It can be triggered by either a positive or a negative voltage being applied to its gate electrode (with respect to A1, otherwise known as MT1). Once triggered, the device continues to conduct until the current through it drops below a certain threshold value, the holding current, such as at the end of a half-cycle of alternating current (AC) mains power. This makes the TRIAC a very convenient switch for AC circuits, allowing the control of very large power flows with milliampere-scale control currents. In addition, applying a trigger pulse at a controllable point in an AC cycle allows one to control the percentage of current that flows through the TRIAC to the load (phase control).