Easy Ido/Lesson four
Changing verbs to nouns, nouns to verbs, and others
- You can turn any adjective into an adverb by replacing -a with -e. mala (bad), male (badly).
- You can turn verbs into nouns by replacing the -ar with an -o. Remember that because verbs are action words, the noun will only be about the action itself, not the thing you use to do it. vidar (to see) - vido (seeing or sight); promenar (to walk) - promeno (a walk).
- You can change the -a on an adjective to -o, which gives you a noun of the thing that the adjective symbolizes. giganta (gigantic) - giganto (a giant). yuna (young) - yuno (a young person, a youth).
- Don't forget that the verbs we turned into adjectives before can turn into nouns in the same way too. drinkar (to drink) - drinkanta (drinking) - drinkanto (someone or something drinking, a drinker). flugar (to fly) - fluganta (flying) - fluganto (flier, the thing doing the flying).
- If you change the -o to an -a, you get a direct adjective. This means that metalo (metal) turns to metala (of metal), as in metala telefono (a metal telephone). Don't forget that this doesn't mean "metallic"! If it did, you could turn it back into metalo with the meaning "metal-like", and the word metalo would have two meanings. In the same way, papero (paper) turns into papera as in papera ucelo (a paper bird), and doesn't mean a "paper-like bird". This point is very important.
- The usual way to make an adjective from a noun is to replace the -o with -ala. Now the word papero turns into paperala (of paper), and we get the word paperala industrio (paper industry). Papera industrio would be an industry made of paper, so don't say that. Words like lego (law) turn into legala (legal) and manuo turns into manuala (manual, by hand).
Turning adjectives into verbs
- There are some ways of turning adjectives into verbs. If you replace -a with -igar, you have a verb that means to turn something into the adjective. For example, kolda (cold) becomes koldigar (to make cold).
- To make a verb that shows something turning into the adjective, replace -a with -eskar. kolda becomes koldeskar (to become cold).
- Don't forget that now that they are verbs, don't worry and just use them in the same way as the others. Me koldigis tu (I made you cold), Elu koldeskos (she will get cold).
Turning nouns into verbs
- To derive a verb from a noun the appropriate suffix must be used, according to the intended meaning of the verb.
- Nouns can turn into verbs by replacing -o with -agar. The suffix -agar comes from the word agar which means "to act", so -agar means "to act with a tool". This means that martelo (a hammer) becomes martelagar (to act with a hammer, that is, to hammer).
- You can do the same thing to make a verb with the meaning "to add" by replacing -o with -izar. That means that salo (salt) becomes salizar (to salt, or to add salt).
- Once you have a verb, you can turn it into a noun again, but remember that the meaning is about the action now, not the object. So martelagar (to hammer) becomes martelago (the act of using a hammer, or hammering), and salizar becomes salizo (the act of salting, or adding salt).
- If you use the wrong ending you'll have a different meaning. If you put -izar on martelo for example, you will have the verb martelizar which means "to add hammer", which doesn't make much sense.
Okay, that's enough for this lesson. Make sure to read this one a few times to remember. Try finding some words of your own, change the endings and see if you can find them in real Ido sentences on Google.
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