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Disc golf (sometimes called Frisbee golf, folf or frolf) is a disc game in which individual players throw a flying disc into a basket or at a target. According to the Professional Disc Golf Association, "The object of the game is to traverse a course from beginning to end in the fewest number of throws of the disc."
Disc golf is similar to traditional golf and uses much of the same rules and terminology. As in ball golf, a course usually consists of 18 holes. Unlike ball golf, most courses are located in public parks and are free to play, although some courses require a nominal fee, and the sport requires inexpensive discs instead of costly clubs and balls.  The modern disc golf target consists of a metal basket with chains hanging over it and was invented in 1976.
Disc golf is sometimes informally called "Frisbee golf" ("Frisbee" being a trademark of the Wham-O toy company for its line of discs), "folf", or "frolf" (a portmanteau of "Frisbee" and "golf" made popular by a reference on Seinfeld). The governing bodies of the sport and the manufacturers of equipment uniformly refer to the game as "disc golf."
Tee Pad - the area where the first throw of a given hole must take place. These are often concrete pads, but many courses utilize natural tees. It is not uncommon for a portion of a sidewalk or a parking lot to be used as a tee pad.
The Basket - often called the pin. Once a disc lands in the basket, the hole is considered completed.
Throw - the act of propelling the disc towards the basket. Each throw is counted towards the player’s score. There are three types of throws: backhand, forehand (often called sidearm), and overhand. (styles of throw are explained later in this entry)
Lie - the spot where the disc comes to rest. This is often marked by a mini-disc marker.
Par - like in ball golf, each disc golf course has a posted par. The ‘par’ is the number of strokes that a scratch player would need to complete the hole. This is usually the number of throws it takes to reach the green + two putts. On a hole less than 400ft, the par is usually three, depending on the number of obstacles. For holes more than 400ft, the par is usually four. Most disc golfers disregard the posted par, in favor of a universal par of three. To the competitive disc golfer, every hole is a par three, making the total par for 18 holes always 54. This serves to simplify the game. And this helps the average disc golfer measure themselves against the pros. Most pros can finish any hole in three strokes.
Drive - any throw off of the tee pad, or a throw from the fairway designed for maximum distance.
Approach - usually the second shot of a hole, designed to place the disc within putting distance.
Putt - a throw is officially considered a putt if it is made within the circle. Many players consider distances of twenty or thirty meter putts, and use their putting motion. There are special rules related to official putting however. (see below)
Ace - known as a hole in one in ball golf. An ace occurs when a player makes their first shot, or drive, into the basket. An ace in disc golf is fairly rare and much praise is given to those who have accomplished this spectacular feat.
The Circle - what is considered the green in disc golf. This is a circle ten meters in radius, with the basket at its center.
Differences and Similarities to Ball GolfEdit
Unlike ball golf, disc golf is more able to utilize natural objects than ball golf. Forcing players to play through small holes in tree lines, or around hills and buildings, or through tight lines in the woods is not uncommon in disc golf. Having low canopies in the woods also provides an interesting challenge. Playing uphill or downhill is also common on the disc golf course. Some holes may be only 150ft, but there could be three lines, with clearance of only ten feet that the disc must fly through to get to the hole. A good disc golf hole has multiple lines that can be used to reach the basket, making the use of multiple shots an option. A good disc golf course, however, has a few holes that force a certain kind of shot. These holes force players to use a wide variety of techniques, rewarding a player who has taken the time to master many different shots.
Older disc golf courses are generally shorter than newer courses, and all courses are much shorter than ball golf courses. The top pros generally throw between 300 ft. and 500ft, while most amateurs throw less than 300ft. People simply can't throw a disc as far as a golf ball can be hit. Older courses were designed before technology allowed discs to fly as far as they do, and so they tend to be shorter, with more technical holes, usually only featuring one or two holes that are over 350ft or even 300ft. Most new courses often feature holes that are more than 500ft.
Rule differences with ball golf and disc golf:
- In ball golf, the player can only carry 14 clubs. Disc golf has no rule concerning how many discs a disc golfer can carry. Also, disc golfers may add discs to their bag during the round, which is not allowed in ball golf.
- Whereas club golfers must "play it where it lies" on the ground, it doesn't work the same with disc golf since the disc is thrown and not struck. Disc golfers must have a supporting point (usually a foot but can be any part of the body) on the playing surface within 30cm behind the front edge of where their previous shot landed (if inbounds) at the point their next throw is released. This allows the disc golfer to lean to the left, or the right to establish a better angle around obstacles. His 'pivot' foot must remain behind his marker however. A special mini-disc is usually used to mark the previous lie on the ground, however the use of a mini is only required if the player would like to use the same disc they just threw or if they are moving the lie.
- In disc golf, it is acceptable for a player to 'fall' in front of his lie. The motion of throwing the disc often involves a significant amount of force, which can cause a player to be off-balance. As long as his 'plant' of 'pivot' foot is behind his marker when he releases the disc, he may fall in front of the marker after the release. This allowance does NOT apply to putting. A throw is officially considered a putt in disc golf if the lie is marked within what is known as 'The Circle'. This is a circle with a ten meter radius, with the pin at its center. After putting, a disc golfer must demonstrate balance with his plant foot, before they may step away from his marker. However, like golfers may putt from the fringe, rough or fairway, most disc golfers still use a putting motion on shots that are longer than 10 meters, often called "being out of the circle" or "being outside." The player may follow through on these shots and many players develop a jump putt where the golfer literally jumps towards the target. This allows a combination of accuracy that putting provides and more power on the putt.
- Falling putts (when the player follows through [as described above] on a putt 10 meters or shorter) and foot faults (when a player does not release the disc behind their mark or within the required distance of the mark, when a player has a part of their body touching the ground on release past their mark or when their tee shot is released from off the teeing area) are penalized in a unique way. The first offense is not penalized a stroke, but the golfer is required to re-throw the shot and then is warned for the offense. Any subsequent fouls, however, are penalized one stroke and the golfer must re-throw.
- Disc golf doesn't have "hazards" as defined in ball golf. Bodies of water, park roads and areas of cement are typically defined as out-of-bounds in disc golf, however, sometimes these are not. Most courses define these areas as out of bounds or in bounds on tee signs at each hole, however, there is no universal standard for these. As in ball golf, any out-of-bounds shot is a one stroke penalty, however, the rules for spotting the lie for the next shot are quite different than those in ball golf. If a throw lands out of bounds, unless defined by the hole, the thrower has the option of playing from the previous lie, or playing from the approximate spot where his disc crossed into the out-of-bound territory. If he chooses to play from where his disc crosses out-of-bounds, he may take a one meter relief from the out-of-bounds area, even if it puts him closer to the pin. The rules do not permit a player to have a supporting point touching out of bounds on release so this is the reason for the relief. If a player lands within a meter of the out of bounds and is in bounds, he is still granted this relief for the same reasoning. This relief is an option, the only rule regarding this involving this is when the disc is released. Most golfers use this rule to their advantage to make putts closer or to improve their lie. Some holes may require a throw from a Drop Zone. If that is the case, the thrower simply moves to the drop zone to play his next shot. A disc is only considered out-of-bounds if it is completely surrounded by out-of-bounds. If any part of the disc is touching in-bounds, then the lie is playable.
- Another difference is the optional penalty for a disc that lands more than 2 meters above the playing surface. The course designer may specify that on particular trees, holes, or the whole course, a disc landing above 2 meters will receive a one throw penalty. This is known as the 2-Meter Rule. If not specified, there's no penalty for a disc landing any height above the ground. In ball golf, it's likely a player will need to take an unplayable penalty if their ball lands above the ground. On the other hand, balls are much less likely to remain stuck above ground than discs are as they fly through trees. When the disc is stuck above ground (including on top of baskets and those that land in the wrong the basket) are to be marked directly below the disc. Even if the disc is not retrieveable, as long as the player can identify it, he is not penalized (assuming the 2- meter rule is not in effect). A tournament director has the option of enforcing the 2-Meter Rule regardless of whether or not the course enforces the rule. Many casual disc golfers often choose whether to play with the 2-Meter Rule at the beginning of a round.
- Disc Golf holes may also have what are known as 'mandatories' or what are commonly called "mandos" These are obstacles that a disc must pass in a certain way. For example, a tree may be marked as a 'right mandatory', meaning a disc must pass that tree on the right side. Failure to hit a mandatory is a one-stroke penalty, and the thrower must play from his previous lie or a drop zone if provided. Mandos are usually put in place to force a player to play down a fairway instead of down another fairway to help with safety.
Safety: Disc golf is usually played in a public park, thus bikers, hikers, children playing and campers are often on the course. On some courses, such as on a college campus, athletic activities often take place on fairways. Disc golfers have to be very careful to avoid pedestrians, and it is a generally accepted rule that pedestrians have the right-of-way.
The golf disc used today is much smaller than traditional flying discs. Also, general-purpose flying discs, such as those used for playing guts or Ultimate Frisbee, have a simple edge to them, whereas disc golf discs have extended lips. They also have a much smaller diameter and profile.
There are a wide variety of discs, divided into three basic categories: putters, mid-range discs, and drivers.
The putters are designed similar to discs you would play catch with: e.g., a Wham-o brand Frisbee®. They are designed to fly straight, predictably, and very slowly compared to mid-range discs and drivers. Mid-range discs have slightly sharper edges, which enable them to cut through the air better. Drivers have the sharpest edge and have most of their mass concentrated on the outer rim of the disc rather than distributed equally throughout. Drivers are the hardest types of discs to learn how to throw; their flight path will be very unpredictable without practice. Drivers are also often divided into different categories. Innova Discs, the most popular disc manufacturer, divides their discs into Distance Drivers and Fairway Drivers, with a fairway driver being somewhere between a distance drive and a mid-range disc. New players will find that throwing a distance driver accurately will require experience with disc golf disc response. It is better to begin play with a fairway driver and later incorporate distance drivers.
Discraft Discs, one of Innova's biggest competitors, divides their drivers into 3 categories: Long Drivers, Extra Long Drivers and Maximum Distance Drivers. The greater the distance of the driver the less control the disc golf player has on the disc. Therefore, an unexperienced player would most likely prefer to use a Long or Extra Long Driver while an experience player would go for a maximum distance driver if they were seeking longer throws.
Natural action of the disc: For a right-handed, back-hand thrower (RHBH), the disc will naturally pull to the left. For a right-handed fore-hand thrower (RHFH), the disc will naturally pull to the right. For a left-handed, back-hand thrower (LHBH), the disc will naturally pull to the right. For a left-handed, fore-hand thrower (LHFH), the disc will naturally pull to the left.
Over stable (AKA "hyzer"): A disc that is over stable will increase the natural angle of the disc. Thrown long enough, a good hyzer will perform an "S" shaped curve, and not just a single arc.
Under stable (AKA "an-hyzer"): A disc that is under stable will push against the natural angle of the disc.
Weight of the disc: Golf discs typically weigh between 150 and 180 grams (5.3-6.3 oz.), and measure about 21-24 cm in diameter. PDGA rules prohibit discs weighing more than 200 grams, or whose weight is more than 8.3 grams per centimeter of diameter. Lighter discs are more suited to less experienced players, and heavier discs are more suited to experienced players. This is not always the case however. A lighter disc will be more under stable than its heavier counterparts.
Types of Throws and Throwing TipsEdit
First, some basic terminology:
Distance Driving - a throw that is designed to produce a great deal of distance. When trying to throw for a max distance, the ideal flight path of the disc, for a RHBH thrower, is to turn slightly to the right, straighten out, and then fade to the left. This will look like a ')' or an elongated ‘?’.
Approaching - if a player is not driving the disc, he is either approaching or putting. Professional players consider around a 200-250ft shot to be an approach. For many players, however, this is the length of their normal drives. For some players, a shot does not truly become an approach until around 100ft.
Putting - officially, a disc is being putt if it is being thrown within the circle. However, many players use their putting motion from much further away. There are many different types of putts which are explained below. As with anything, a disc golfer must find what is comfortable for them, and go with it. There is no ‘wrong’ way to putt. A good video of putting instruction can be found at this link: http://www.discraft.com/resources.html
Backhand - when throwing backhand, a thrower must determine for himself what kinds of discs work best for them, depending on how much ‘snap’ they throw with. ‘Snap’ is generated by high arm speed and by a player cocking his wrist and literally snapping the disc on the release. When thrown correctly, a disc will literally make an audible snapping sound upon release. Players who throw with a great deal of snap should throw over stable discs, whereas a player who doesn’t throw with a great deal of snap should throw under stable discs.
Forehand - As with backhands, players have to determine for themselves what sort of discs work for them. Generally, forehand throws generate more snap than a backhand throw, so usually, forehand shots require more over stable discs.
With both forehands and backhands, the throwing ability of different players will progress. For example, when a player first starts throwing, they do not throw with a great deal of snap, thus they should use under stable discs. However, the player will eventually learn how to throw with more snap, which will require them to move to more over stable discs. Players should not, however, remove that first disc for the bag, as it may now be good for turnover drives or anhyzers. Players have to learn their discs and learn what works best for them.
Hyzer - a hyzer is a throw that is designed to take advantage of the natural angle of the disc. For example, a RHBH hyzer is a shot that fades to the left. There are a few types of hyzers. A soft hyzer is a throw that gradually fades, whereas a spike hyzer is a throw where the disc fades hard and drastically. Spike hyzers can result in discs that are literally ‘spiked’ into the ground. These types of throws are used to navigate certain obstacles. A disc that is slightly over stable with a high glide, such as the Innova Valkyrie, are good for soft hyzers, whereas a disc that is very over stable with a low glide, such as Innova Firebirds, are best for spike hyzers.
Anhyzer - an anhyzer is a throw that is designed to go against the natural angle of the disc. For example, a RHBH thrower who throws a disc that fades to the right would be throwing an anhyzer. To execute an anhyzer, a RHBH would tilt the disc to the right when he releases the disc. Under stable discs are best used for anhyzers. As with hyzers, soft and spike hyzers are options. The Innova ‘Roadrunner’ and ‘Stingray’ are good for anhyzer shots.
Turnover - a disc is ‘turned over’ when it flies against the natural angle of the disc. For example, a RHBH thrower has turned a disc over if it flies to the right when released flat. This differs from an anhyzer because of the angle of release. Turnover drives are generally released flat or at a slight angle, whereas an anhyzer is released at a more drastic angle. Ideally, the disc will ‘flex’ back to the natural fade, creating an ‘S’ curve. Some curves are more drastic then others. A more under stable disc will turn over harder than an over stable disc. Depending on the shot, a certain type of turnover drive may be required. Lighter discs will turnover much easier than heavier discs. An ideal drive for max distance is usually slightly turned over. Depending on the thrower, many discs can be used for turnover drives.
Hammer/Tomahawk - an overhand throw where the thrower grips the disc much like he would a forehand. This throw has a unique flight pattern which is best learned by throwing a few out in a field. It is useful for going over difficult obstacles. Mid-range discs with high glide are best for hammers. The Innova Max and Roc are good discs for hammers.
Thumber - an overhand throw that involves placing the thumb inside the lip of the disc. Like the hammer, the thumber has a unique flight patter than is best learned by throwing a few out in a field. It is also useful for going over difficult obstacles. The Innova Monster is a good thumber disc.
Roller - this is a shot designed to travel a short distance in the air and then roll towards the target. Rollers can be thrown forehand and backhand, and should be considered a very advanced throw. Many disc golfers can roll a disc farther than they can throw it. Rollers are very effective in going under obstacles, such as a circle of trees around the basket. They are difficult to control, and require a great deal of practice. Innova Sidewinders and Roadrunners make good long distance rollers, and Innova Leopards and Cheetahs make for good mid to short range rollers.
In-line Putting - a style of putting where the plant foot is directly behind the lie marker and pointed right at the basket, and the other foot is placed behind the plant foot. The disc is thrown from the chest generally straight at the pin. Some in line putter throw the disc with a bit of snap and run right at the basket, while others try to float the disc into the basket. This is just a matter of personal taste or what the situation dictates. In-line putters almost always put backhand.
Straddle Putt - a style of putting where one foot is placed behind the lie marker and the other is parallel, rather than behind, the plant foot. The putter often squats a bit a uses their legs to propel the discs. Straddle putts can be used to navigate around obstacles and provide a clear line to the basket. Some prefer the stability of straddle putting for shorter puts and many use the stance for jump putting. Most straddle putts are backhand putts, though they can be forehand puts.
Jump Putt - outside the circle, jump putting is used to generate more power. It is similar to straddle putting except the putter jumps forward with the release of the disc. This is a tough skill that requires some practice, but can be very effective. Many golfers do not bother with jump putting, though many use it very effectively. Jump putting is illegal within the circle. Jump putting is almost always done with a backhand throw.
Turbo Putt - an interesting style of putt where the thumb is placed in the middle of the disc and the fingers are rested on the outer rim of the disc. The putter spins the disc slightly with the release and pushes with his fingers to propel the disc. This style of putting is not very effective outside of the circle.
Pancake Putt - a putt used in the event a miss will create a bad disc placement (i.e. over a ledge, into water, etc.). The disc is held top plate facing away from the putter with fingertips placed on the top plate over the rim and thumb resting outstretched on the bottom of the disc rim. The putter raises his full arm above his shoulder then quickly swings in a downward motion. His arm follows through the putt; the disc is released by all fingers slightly higher than the intended target. The fingertips will press into the top plate causing the disc to flip bottom to top and halt upon impact. A heavy putter or mid-range disc is suggested.
Kneeling Putt - in disc golf, the situation often dictates that a throw must be made from a kneeling position. Any point of contact is legal as long as it follows previously stated rules, i.e., in line with the marker disc, no closer to the hole and within the acceptable distance behind the marker.
When putting, golfers also use unconventional stances. Golfers sometime contort their bodies in unique ways to navigate around obstacles. Sometimes a lunge position is utilized to putt, either forehand or backhand. Sometimes the golfer's feet are each at a different level of elevation. By rule, it is technically legal for someone to completely lie on the ground and throw, assuming their foot is behind their mini marker, and they do not use their body to decrease the distance between their marker and the pin.
Stroke play is the most common scoring method but there are many others, including match play, skins, speed golf and captain's choice, which in disc golf is referred to as "doubles" (not to be confused with partner or team play).
In every form of play, the goal is to play as few strokes per round as possible. Scores for each hole can be described as follows:
|Term on a
|-3||Albatross (or double-eagle)||three strokes under par|
|-2||Eagle (or double-birdie)||two strokes under par|
|-1||Birdie||one stroke under par|
|0||Par||strokes equal to par|
|+1||Bogey||one stroke more than par|
|+2||Double bogey||two strokes over par|
|+3||Triple bogey||three strokes over par|
A snowman (perhaps 4 over par on a par 4 hole) is an informal term in some countries for a score indicating that 8 shots were taken at a single hole
Doubles play is a unique style of play that many local courses offer on a weekly basis. In this format, teams of two golfers are determined. Sometime this is done by random draw, and other times it is a pro-am format. On the course, it is a 'best-disc' scramble. Meaning both player throw their tee shot, and then decide which lie they would like to play. Both players then play from the same lie, again choosing which lie is preferable.
The major disc manufacturers are as follows:
3. MVP Disc Sports
5. Quest AT
6. Millenium Discs
7. Disc Golf Association
8. Lightning Discs
11. Latitude 64
Different types of plastic:
The first plastic listed in each entry is the Innova line, the second is the Discraft line, and the third is the Gateway line.
1. DX/Pro-D/S - this is the economy line of plastic. It is generally very grippy when worn, but it will wear very quickly. It is easy to warp and bend these discs. They do not maintain their flight characteristics for too long. Many players use DX plastic for mid-range discs, but not in drivers. Many also prefer putters in this plastic, citing the added grip as their reasoning.
2. Proline/Elite-X/H - A plastic more sturdy than economy plastics. Players often prefer the feel of these over the economy line.
3. Champion/Elite-Z/E/Proton - A premier plastic that is extremely durable, more expensive, and due to the high percentage of polyurethane, often translucent. It will maintain flight characteristics even after a great deal of abuse. Players often find it is easier to control a Champion of Elite-Z disc and that they can get more of a reaction out of the disc with less effort.
4. Glow - this plastic glows in the dark when held up to a florescent light. It is a bit more durable than DX plastic, but not quite as durable as Pro-Line plastic.
5. Star/ESP - A very durable plastic that maintains flight characteristics a bit longer than Champion or Elite-Z plastic and that is a grippier plastic. Some players prefer the feel of Champion or Elite-Z plastic, while others prefer Star or ESP.
6. ESP FLX (Discraft) - A very flexible plastic offered only by Discraft. The disc can literally bend in half and spring right back into its original form. The grip it offers is superb. The discs also do not bounce far. When the hit a tree, they tend to fold and drop to the ground, rather than carry deeper into the woods. They also grip the chains very well.
Disc golf, in some form, has probably been played informally since the early 1900s, according to Victor Malafront's, "The Frisbee Handbook." But modern disc golf started in the late 1960s, when it seems to have been invented in many places and by many people independently. Two of the best-know figures in the sport are George Sappenfield and "Steady Ed" Headrick.
George Sappenfield and early object coursesEdit
For example, George Sappenfield, a Californian, realized that golf would be a lot of fun if played with discs. He set up an object course for kids to play on, and other early courses were also of this type, using anything from lamp poles to fire hydrants as targets. A year later, Sappenfield introduced the game to many adults, and courses began to crop up in various places in the Midwest and the East Coast (some perhaps through Sappenfield's promotion efforts, others probably independently envisioned). Some of Sappenfield's acquaintances are known to have brought the game to UC Berkeley. It quickly became popular on campus, with a permanent course laid out in 1970.
"Steady Ed" Headrick and the growth of the modern gameEdit
The first standardized target course was put in by "Steady Ed" Headrick, a flying disc innovator known as the "Father of Disc Golf", in what was then known as Oak Grove Park in La Canada Flintridge, California, California,. (Today the park is known as Hahamonga Watershed Park). This park is immediately to the south of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which supplied at least a few of the earliest players. Ed worked for the San Gabriel, California, California-based Wham-O Corporation and is credited for pioneering the modern era of disc sports.
Headrick coined and trademarked the term "Disc Golf" when formalizing the sport and invented the Disc Pole Hole, the first disc golf target to incorporate chains and a basket on a pole. Headrick founded the Professional Disc Golf Association (PDGA), Disc Golf Association (DGA), and Recreational Disc Golf Association (RDGA) as governing bodies for professional, competitive amateur, and family-oriented play, respectively, and worked on standardizing the rules and the equipment for the quickly-growing sport. Headrick abandoned his trademark on the term "Disc Golf", and turned over control and administration of the PDGA to the growing body of disc golf players in order to focus his passion for building and inventing equipment for the sport. Upon his death, Headrick was cremated and his ashes were made into a limited number of discs per his wishes. The discs were given to friends and family, and some were sold with all proceeds going toward funding a nonprofit "Steady" Ed Memorial Disc Golf Museum at the PDGA International Disc Golf Center in Columbia County, Georgia. One of the discs that contains Headrick's ashes will be permanently placed on the roof of the center. When asked why this was to be done, by a member of the local media, PDGA Executive Director Brian Graham quoted an old Frisbee addage, "Old Frisbee players are like old Frisbee's ... They don't die, they just land up on roof."
Women in the sportEdit
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While there are more male than female players, the Women's Disc Golf Association exists to encourage female players and arrange women's tournaments. A PDGA survey states that out of its 11,302 members in 2006, 8% are female, or about 900.
World Disc Golf Champions and Hall of FameEdit
A list of all disc golf world champions, United States champions, world doubles champions, and PDGA award winners .
- 1993: Vanessa Chambers | Dave Dunipace | Ed Headrick | Tom Monroe | Jim Palmeri | Dan Roddick | Ted Smethers
- 1994: Harold Duvall | Nobuya Kobayashi | Darrell Lynn | Dan Mangone | Doug Newland | Snapper Pierson | Lavone Wolfe
- 1995: Ken Climo | John David | David Greenwell | Johnny Roberts | Dr. Rick Voakes
- 1996: Mike Conger | Patti Kunkle | Rick Rothstein
- 1997: Steve Slasor | Elaine King | Jim Kenner
- 1998: Gregg Hosfeld | John Houck | Carlton Howard
- 1999: Sam Ferrans | Steve Wisecup | Tim Selinske
- 2000: Tom Schot | Royce Racinowski
- 2001: Stan McDaniel | Johnny Sias
- 2002: Alan Beaver | Gary Lewis
- 2003: Mark Horn | Brian Hoeniger | Dr. Stancil Johnson,
- 2004: Derek Robins | Geoff Lissaman | Johnny Lissaman | Marty Hapner
- 2005: Mats Bengtsson | Sylvia Voakes
- 2006: Chuck Kennedy| Kozo Shimbo
- 2007: Fred Salaz | Michael Travers
For more information, visit the website of the Disc Golf Hall of Fame.
- "Rules", PDGA.com, Professional Disc Golf Association
- "Disc Golf: It's Not Actually Golf". http://www.wired.com/news/culture/0,71195-0.html. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
- "Disc Golf: The Re-discovery of an Aging Sport". http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/58211/disc_golf_the_rediscovery_of_an_aging.html. Retrieved 2006-12-10.
- "Definition of snowman in golf". MiMi.hu. http://en.mimi.hu/golf/snowman.html. Retrieved 2007.