Czech alphabet consists of 42 normal Latin letters, some have an accent:
- All vowels can be either short (aeiouy), or long with acute (čárka) (áéíóúůý). (This can denote a different word.)
- The only difference between Ú and Ů is that Ú is used only at the beginning of a word (or a part of a word like: tri/angle = troj/úhelník).
- There are also "softened" versions of the letters D E N R S T Z, with a hook (háček): ˇ
- The accents lengthen the vowels, but they do not imply stress. Stress is almost always on the first syllable. The same rules also apply in Slovak.
A Á B C Č D Ď E É Ě F G H Ch I Í J K L M N Ň O Ó P Q R Ř S Š T Ť U Ú Ů V W X Y Ý Z Ž
Note: Except for foreign words, the letters F G Ó Q W and X are almost never used .
Most of the letters are spelled similar way as in German. Note:
- Ch is pronounced as "kh" and considered as one letter
- C like in "tse-tse" or German 'z' as in 'Zimmer'
- E and G like in "beggar"
- H like in "head"
- J like in "yeah"
- Ň like in "new" or the Spanish 'señor'
- R somewhat harder than in English, a bit like in Spanish "arriba" initially and rolled in the middle of a word.
The pronunciation rarely changes depending on the position, except for:
- D, N, T are pronounced as Ď, Ň, Ť before I or Ě
Note: This is the only reason why Ě is used. The letter itself is pronounced as E.
Not quite true, consider following example: "válka měla mnoho obětí" and "těšila se domu na jeho objetí..." etc.
- Czech has word-final devoicing of consonants. This means that in speech, voiced consonants are pronounced as their voiceless counterparts: D -> T, Ď->Ť, H->Ch, G->K, V->F, B->P, Z->S, Ž->Š.
Now you know almost everything. You can go to the Czech pronunciation page and hear it.