||A reader requests that the formatting and layout of this book be improved.
Good formatting makes a book easier to read and more interesting for readers. See Editing Wikitext for ideas, and WB:FB for examples of good books.
Please continue to edit this book and improve formatting, even after this message has been removed. See the discussion page for current progress.
CHAPTER – I INTRODUCTION
To a scientist, stress is any action or situation that places special physical or psychological demands upon a person, anything that can unbalance his individual equilibrium. And while the physiological response to such demand is surprisingly uniform, the forms of stress are innumerable. Stress may be even but unconscious like the noise of a city or the daily chore of driving the car. Perhaps the one incontestable statement that can be made about stress is that it belongs to everyone- to businessmen and professors, to mother and their children, to factory workers. Stress is a part of fabric of life. Nothing can isolate stress from human beings as is evident from various researches and studies. Stress can be managed but not simply done away with. Today, widely accepted ideas about stress are challenged by new research, and conclusions once firmly established may be turned completely around. The latest evidence suggested (Ogden Tanner,1979): - - Some stress is necessary to the well being and a lack can be harmful. - Stress definitely causes some serious ailments. -Severe stress makes people accident-prone.
1.1 CONCEPT OF STRESS
Stress is a complex phenomenon. It is very subjective experience. What may be challenge for one will be a stressor for another. It depends largely on background experiences, temperament and environmental conditions. Stress is a part of life and is generated by constantly changing situations that a person must face. The term stress refers to an internal state, which results from frustrating or unsatisfying conditions. A certain level of stress is unavoidable. Because of its complex nature stress has been studied for many years by researchers in psychology, sociology and medicine.
1.2 DEFINING STRESS Defining stress is a very complex matter, which is the subject of different analyses and continuous debate among experts. Beyond the details of this debate, a general consensus can be reached about a definition of stress, which is centered around the idea of a perceived imbalance in the interface between an individual, the environment and other individuals. When people are faced with demands from others or demands from the physical or psycho-social environment to which they feel unable to adequately respond, a reaction of the organism is activated to cope with the situation. The nature of this response depends upon a combination of different elements, including the extent of the demand, the personal characteristics and coping resources of the person, the constraints on the person in trying to cope and the support received from others.)
Fig. 1.1 Factors in the perception and experience of stress (Martino,2000)
Stress is involved in an environmental situation that perceived as presenting demand which threatens to exceed the person’s capabilities and resources for meeting it, under conditions where he or she expects a substantial differential in the rewards and costs from meeting the demand versus not meeting it. (Mc Grath, 1976)
Stress is the term often used to describe distress, fatigue and feelings of not being able to cope. The term stress has been derived from the Latin word ‘stringer’ which means to draw tight. The term was used to refer the hardship, strain, adversity or affiction. Stress is an integral part of natural fabric of life. It refers both to the circumstances that place physical or psychological demands on an individual and to the emotional reactions experiences in these situations (Hazards,1994). Although, the adverse effects of stress on physical health and emotional well being are increasingly recognised, there is little agreement among experts on the definition of stress: - According to Selye (1976), stress is caused by physiological, psychological and environmental demands. When confronted with stressors, the body creates extra energy and stress occurs because our bodies do not use up all of the extra energy that has been created. Selye first described this reaction in 1936 and coined it the General Adapt ion Syndrome(GAS). The GAS includes three distinct stages: a) alarm reaction, b) stage of resistance c) stage of exhaustion According to Lazaras, (1976): stress occurs when there are demands on the person, which taxes or exceeds his adjustive resources. According to Spielberger, (1979): the term stress is used to refer to a complex psycho- biological process that consists of three major elements. This process is initiated by a situation or stimulus that is potentially harmful or dangerous stressor. If a stressor is interpreted as dangerous or threatening, an anxiety reaction will be elicited. Thus the definition of stress refers to the following temporal events.
Stressor ----------------- Perception of ----------------- Anxiety State Fig 1.2 Temporal Events of Stress
According to Steinberg and Ritzmann, (1990): Stress can be defined as “an under load or overload of matter, energy or information input to, or output from, a living system.” According to Levine and Ursin, (1991): “Stress is a part of an adaptive biological system, where a state is created when a central processor registers an informational discrepancy.” According to Humphrey, (1992): In essence, stress can be considered as “any factor, acting internally or externally, that makes it difficult to adapt and that induces increased effort on the part of the person to maintain a state of equilibrium both internally and with the external environment.” According to Levi, (1996): “Stress is cost by a multitude of demands (Stressors) such an inadequate fit between what we need and what we capable of, and what our environment offers and what it demands of us.” According to Bernik, (1997): “Stress designates the aggression itself leading to discomfort, or the consequences of it. It is our organism’s response to a challenge, be it right or wrong.” According to Bowman, (1998): “Stress is the body’s automatic response to any physical or mental demand placed upon it. When pressures are threatening, the body rushes to supply protection by turning on ‘the juices’ and preparing to defend itself. It’s the ‘flight or fight’ response in action.”
1.3 OCCUPATIONAL STRESS Occupational stress can be defined as the harmful physical and emotional responses that occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury. The concept of Occupational stress is often confused with challenge, but these concepts are not the same. Challenge energizes us psychologically and physically, and it motivates us to learn new skills and master our Occupations. When a challenge is met, we feel relaxed and satisfied (NIOSH,1999).
Thus, challenge is an important ingredient for healthy and productive work. The importance of challenge in our work lives is probably what people are referring to when they say, "a little bit of stress is good for you. Occupational stress is that which derives specifically from conditions in the work place. These may either cause stress initially or aggravate the stress already present from other sources. In today’s typical workplace, stress is seen as becoming increasingly more common. People appear to be working longer hours, taking on higher level of responsibilities and exerting themselves even more strenuously to meet rising expectations about Occupational performance. Competition is sharp. There is always someone else ready to “step into one’s shoes” should one be found wanting.
1.4 DEFINITIONS OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS According to Kyriacou (1987), defines “teacher stress as the experience by a teacher of unpleasant emotions such as tension, frustration, anger and depression resulting from aspects of his work as a teacher.”
According to Okebukola and Jegede (1989), defined occupational stress as “a condition of mental and physical exertion brought about as a result of harassing events or dissatisfying elements or general features of the working environment.”
According to Borg (1990), conceptualizes teacher stress as a negative and potentially harmful to teachers’ health. The key element in the definition is the teacher’s perception of threat based on the following three aspects of his job circumstances. 1. that demands are being made on him. 2. that he is unable to meet or has difficulty in meeting these demands. 3. that failure to meet these demands threatens his mental/physical well being.” According to United States National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, (1999), Job stress can be defined as “the harmful physical and emotional responses the occur when the requirements of the job do not match the capabilities, resources, or needs of the worker. Job stress can lead to poor health and even injury. According to a discussion document presented by United Kingdom Health and Safety Commission, London, (1999), “Stress is the reaction people have to, excessive pressures or other types of demand placed on them. According to Denise Allen, (2002): “Stress is a feeling we experience, when we loose confidence in our capability to cope with a situation. According to European Commission, Directorate General for Employment and Social Affairs, (2005) “The emotional cognitive, behavioral and physiological reaction to aversive and noxious aspects of work, work environments and work organizations. It is a state characterized by high levels of arousal and distress and often by feelings of not coping.”
NIOSH APPROACH TO OCCUPATIONAL STRESS On the basis of experience and research, NIOSH favors the view that working conditions play a primary role in causing Occupational stress. However, the role of individual factors is not ignored. According to the NIOSH view, exposure to stressful working conditions (called Occupational stressors) can have a direct influence on worker safety and health. But as shown below, individual and other situational factors can intervene to strengthen or weaken this influence. Theresa's need to care for her ill mother is an increasingly common example of an individual or situational factor that may intensify the effects of stressful working conditions. Examples of individual and situational factors that can help to reduce the effects of stressful working conditions include the following: • Balance between work and family or personal life • A support network of friends and coworkers • A relaxed and positive outlook
Fig. 1.3 NIOSH Model Of Job Stress
1.5 CAUSES OF OCCUPATIONAL STRESS Nearly everyone agrees that Occupational stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. Views differ, however, on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of Occupational stress. These differing viewpoints are important because they suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. According to one school of thought, differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping style are most important in predicting whether certain Occupational conditions will result in stress-in other words, what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with demanding Occupational conditions. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. The excessive workload demands and conflicting expectations. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of Occupational stress, and for Occupational redesign as a primary prevention strategy.
Work Related Stress; Job stress has been associated with poor mental and physical health. A useful model for understanding how the work environment effects individual health and well-being is provided by (Levi,1996). In this model there are the following components: 1. Stressors: These are aspects of the working environment that cause stress for the individual. . 2. Appraisal: The way a stressor is appraised will vary between individuals depending on such things as personality, customs and attitudes. 3. Stress: Stress is produced when the stressor interacts with the individual’s appraisal of it to induce emotional, behavioral and physiological reactions. Emotional reactions include anxiety, depression, restlessness and fatigue. Behavioral reactions include increased smoking, overindulgence in food or drink and taking unnecessary risks. Physiological reactions include increased blood pressure, increased or irregular heartbeat, muscular tension and associated pain and heartburn. 4. Disease: The above reactions may result in suffering, illness and death (e.g. through suicide, diseases of the heart and blood vessels, or cancer). This sequence of events may be promoted or counteracted by interacting variables such as coping repertoire, social support, physical environment and nutrition. This process is summarized in figure below.
Fig. 1.4 Model of different components of work related stress (Levi,1996)
1.6 SYMPTOMS OF WORK-RELATED STRESS Defining a clear link between occupational causes, and the resulting symptoms is much harder for a condition such as stress than is it for a disease such as mesothelioma (which is only caused by exposure to asbestos). Because many of the symptoms of stress are generalised - such as increased anxiety, or irritability - it is easy for them to be ascribed to a characteristic of the worker, rather than to a condition of the work. As we will show, however, there is mounting scientific and medical evidence that certain types of work and work organisation do have a measurable, and verifiable impact on the health of workers. The range of symptoms includes the following:
Physical Symptoms Mental Health Symptoms Psychological Symptoms Asthma Irritability Smoking Ulcers Depression Heavy drinking Heart disease Anxiety Eating Disorders Diabetes Burn out Increased sickness Thyroid disorders Withdrawal Low self esteem
Table 1: Range of Symptoms
Some degree of stress is a normal part of life and provides part of the stimulus to learn and grow, without having an adverse effect on health. When stress is intense, continuous or repeated - as is often the case with occupational stress - ill health can result (Hazards,1994). The experience of stress can affect the way individuals think, feel and behave, and can also cause physiological changes. Many of the short and long term illnesses caused by stress can be accounted for by the physiological changes that take place when the body is placed under stress. From the documented evidence, it is clear that as far as work life is concerned extreme stress is so aversive to employees that they will try to avoid it by withdrawing psychologically (through disinterest or lack of involvement in the occupation etc.). Excessive stress can destroy the quality of life and also effect family life. Workers under stress are far more likely to have accidents than workers in low stress jobs, and are much more likely to have to take time off work for stress-related sickness. In jobs where work overload is the cause of the stress, the workers find that they have to take time off to deal with the stress, only to return to work to find that the already unmanageable workload has substantially increased in their absence, thereby increasing the source of the stress and fuelling a vicious cycle which may ultimately lead to a complete breakdown in health (Selye,1976).
1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY Occupational stress can be inadvertently linked to success or failure at one’s job. The general impression about occupational stress is the feeling of failure due to work overload. But if this is the case and so simple a problem then merely by reducing the amount of work, occupational stress could have been done away with. However the problem is not that easy to pinpoint. It is here that a comparative investigation of the reasons of stress in different occupations becomes important. Herein lies the most crucial significance of the study. To combat a problem the awareness of the conditions, which lead to it, are very important. Stress is a part of everyone’s daily life. It means that the person cannot cope with the demands put forward by his or her work, which is opposite to their expectations of rewards and success. It affects both the person concerned and the relationships he or she forms in the society be it with family or friends. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored, scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. The excessive workload demands and conflicting expectations and puts a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress, and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. In jobs where work overload is the cause of the stress, the workers find that they have to take time off to deal with the stress, only to return to work to find that the already unmanageable workload has substantially increased in their absence, thereby increasing the source of the stress and fuelling a vicious cycle which may ultimately lead to a complete breakdown in health. At times the work stress becomes so extreme that the workers grow aversive of it and they try to avoid it by withdrawing either psychologically (through disinterest or lack of involvement in the job etc.). or physically through absenteeism, frequently reporting late for work and even while working an attitude of lethargy persists. In this present era of cutthroat competition the idea of being perfect becomes very necessary to strive and become successful. The worker has to be perfect in his job or else he will be replaced or at least lag behind in his work leading to stress. In India the problem of stress management is gaining more and more importance due to the new privatized nature of the economy. People are leaving behind the cozy atmosphere of government jobs and joining the private sector where there is no end to the amount of work that a person can undertake. In this environment coping with stress becomes very important. One has to be aware of the problem well in advance to be able to deal with it. The study becomes very important to be aware of the problems of the present, then build strategies for the future, and also consider the problems that may arise. Stress factor of males and females according to the age of the worker and the kind of work that he performs are key areas to identify the problems.
1.8 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM A STUDY OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG EMPLOYEES FROM DIFFERENT CAREERS OF CHANDIGARH.
1.9 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. To study occupational stress among employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 2. To study occupational stress among males and females employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 3. To study occupational stress among less and more experienced employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 1.10 HYPOTHESES
1. There will be significant difference of occupational stress among employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 2. There will be significant difference of occupational stress among males and females employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 3. There will be significant difference of occupational stress among less and more experienced employees of different careers of Chandigarh.
1. The sample size will be 200 employees. 2. The area of study will be limited to Chandigarh. 3. For data collection, occupational stress inventory will only be used.
CHAPTER 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Review of related literature is an important pre-requisite for actual planning and execution of any research work. `We should not neglect a particular things because it is of past and should not accept a new one because of its newness. It is only with the reference to old that a new thing can be learned. It is necessary to connect previous knowledge with the new idea to be grasped. It means that to learn a new thing our previous knowledge must be brought to the forefront. It is imperative for a review of previous studies on the subject before embarking upon making a fresh study. In this chapter an attempt has been made to take cognizance of studies, which has relevance to present problem. Sometimes the studies reviewed could not be classified into the areas concerned. The review was intended to provide a background to the study that followed and it was thought that such an attempt would be of great help for the formation of hypothesis. Chance (1985), noted the female teachers identified ten factors significantly causing greater stress for them then for their male colleagues. Murphy (1986), found female teachers experiencing more stress than males in the area of time management and even reported high scores of physical symptoms of stress in teacher/teacher relations. Pelsma and Richard (1988), found job satisfaction and teacher stress to be strongly correlated. They also noted that the amount of stress and degree of job satisfaction experience by teachers directly influence the quality of teacher work life. Hittner (1981), revealed a list of events related to teachers’ life satisfaction that could affect their stress and performance at work. These events included marriage, divorce, pregnancy of the loved one, and change of residence. Billingsley and Cross (1992) found that characteristics of special educator such as Gender and marital status appear not to affect their levels or commitments to the field, however, job satisfaction of special education teachers which is correlated with retention, increases with experience. Landbergis (1993) reported that 12 out of 14 studies showed that there was a clear link between occupational stress and heart disease. Further more, it was estimated that 23% of heart diseases in the US could potentially be prevented if the stress level in job were reduced. The studies also showed that more women and black workers faced higher level of stress than their males. Randall R Ross, Elizabeth M Altamaire (1994) has combined insights and research from occupational psychology and clinical psychology to tackle work place stress. The book focuses on strategies, which can be employed by counselors to help individual suffering from emotional and psychological stress and engendered in the work place. Tim Newton (1995) examined stress from this perspective and which aims to present a critical understanding of the experience of stress and distress in employment and to use this analysis to explore broader debates relating to discourse, agency and subjectivity. Singh and Billingsley (1996), Excessive paper work and lack of administrative support were consistently cited as major sources of stress, dissatisfaction and attrition, while positive working environments were often indications of satisfied teachers of EBD students. They reported isolation from colleagues, dissatisfaction with parent participation, frustration with paper work, and a dearth of principal support. In general, teachers who ranked their work environment and principal relationships positively were more likely to be committed and satisfied with teaching and less likely to suffer from symptoms of stress. Terry (1997), found role preparedness, job satisfaction, life satisfaction, illness symptoms (such as migraine and sinus headaches; allergies; colds; post nasal drip; hypertension, bladder, Kidney and bowel disorders; colitis; nervous stomach; acne; and weight problems), locus of control and self esteem to be the internal characteristics that tend to influence teacher stress and the way teachers handle the stress they face. A situation that causes one teacher to experience stress may or may not cause another teacher to experience stress. Examining internal characteristics can provide teachers with insight to the levels of Occupational Stress that they endure. The professional literature indicates that it is not necessarily the stress that is harmful but the levels of stress experienced. Srivastava (1999), found stress at work resulting from increasing complexities of work and its divergent demands has become a prominent and pervading feature of the organizations. Researchers in this area have used the term job stress to denote employees mental state aroused by a job situation perceived as emphasized the role of job situations in their definition of Occupational Stress. The nature of Occupational Stress can be more conveniently and clearly understood in the framework of its causes and consequences. But in fact, job stress does not directly affect the job behavior of the focal workers. The experience and consequences of stress are mediated and moderated by several psychological and situational factors. Cooper (2001), examined that the sources and out comes of job related stress, the methods used to asses levels and consequences of occupational stress, along with strategies might to used by individual and organisation to confront stress and its associated problems. Clarke, Cooper (2003), examined that working in a stressful environment not only increase the risk of physical illness or distress, but also increases the likelihood of work place accidents. Kirk, (2003), Certain professional variables stimulate teacher stress. For example secondary teachers experience stress more frequently than elementary teachers also the fewer years of professional preparation a teacher has, increases the greater the likelihood of stress. However, age and gender are not significant when examining stress. William (2004), has presented well-integrated, coherent coverage of the latest scientific finding from psychology neuroscience, and medicine. He did a splendid job of filing a gap in the literature in stress and health: that gap being the need for an articulate introductory compendium that integrates what is known about the physiology of stress with that of thoughts and emotions. Massey (2004), occupational stress and peacekeepers arising from cumulative effects of occupational strain that is too heavy could lead `flame out’ if too acute or could lead beyond. . International Journal of Learning, (Sept., 2004), change in policies teacher’s incompetence in using the language and computers in teaching, student’s level of acceptance, management of time and facilities for teaching, close supervision by authorized personnel, workload and students’ performance, are the main factors which contribute to teachers stress.
Linden, (2005), stress management field is a 'soft' one, lacking a strong theoretical foundation, and therefore lacking good studies of efficacy and long term outcome. In order to truly comprehend stress management, there needs to be clear understanding on the phenomenon that is "to be managed." He proposes the need for three distinguishable subtypes of stress management programs-a systematic-preventative approach; a broad-based stress vaccination and prevention type of protocol; and a reactive, problem-solving type of stress reduction intervention.
2.2 CONCLUSION BASED ON REVIEW Hence from the review of the literature it is clear that the occupational stress among different employees from different careers vary. Researchers have observed that gender is not significant when examining stress. There will be significant difference of occupational stress among less and more experienced employees. Hence an attempt has been made through the medium study to examine occupational stress due to different stressors.
CHAPTER 3 METHOD AND PROCEDURE
Methodology makes the most important contribution towards enrichment of any study. By Methodology of any research, we mean the selection of the representative sample from out of general population, applying appropriate research tools and techniques, collecting relevant data, analysis and interpretation of the same for scientific investigation of the problem.
3.1 DESIGN OF THE STUDY Having reviewed the related literature and researchers on different dimensions of occupational stress, the investigator proceeds to formulate the plan and design which follows in the subsequent chapter. Design is the process of making decisions before a situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out. It is a process of deliberate anticipation directed towards bringing unexpected situation under control (Ackoff, 1953). The present study entitled “Occupational Stress of Teachers” can be described as an exploratory descriptive survey study. The descriptive research studies are designed to obtain pertinent and precise information concerning the current status of phenomena and, whenever possible to draw valid generalizations, conclusions from the facts discovered. Survey studies are conducted to collect detailed description of existing phenomena with the intent of employing data to justify current conditions and practices or to make more intelligent plans for improving them. There objective is not only to analyze, interpret and report the status of an institution, group or area in order to guide, practice in the immediate future, but also to determine the adequacy of status by comparing it with establish standards. It is descriptive in the sense that it sets to describe the nature and distribution of variables, which involves the comparison of occupational stress among different employees of different careers of Chandigarh (U.T.) 3.1.1 SAMPLE The first task of the investigator was to take a representative sample from field of investigation. For this purpose 200 employees from different careers (doctors, teachers, engineers and clerks) were taken from Chandigarh (U.T.). The technique of purposive random sampling was incidental or judgmental in nature. The investigator collected information from the employees of various professions who willing to cooperate for providing information.
3.1.2 TOOLS For the collection of data it is quite necessary to adopt a systematic procedure. For every type of research, there is need of certain instruments to explore new fields. The instruments employed for the collection of data are called tools.
3.1.3 DATA COLLECTED The respondents were contacted with the help of their Head of departments and seniors. All the possible efforts were made to make them feel at ease and respond to the various tests with full concentration. They were informed that results would be kept strictly confidential and efforts were made to get their maximum cooperation. Tabular presentation of sample
S.No. Name Of Institution Sample Size Total Sample Size =100
Male Female Profession=Teacher Age Group (yrs.)
1 Govt. High School- Sarangpur,Chd 13 06 07 04 09 2 Govt. High School- Sector- 25,Chd 10 06 04 06 04 3 Govt. High School- Khuda Lahora 09 03 06 03 06 4 Govt. Model High School- Sector-36,Chd 08 04 04 03 05 5 Govt. Model High School- Sarangpur, Chd 10 06 04 06 04
S.No. Name Of Institution Sample Size Total Sample Size =100
Male Female Profession=Doctor Age Group (yrs.)
1 P.G.I.-Sector-14,Chd 13 08 05 04 09 2 General Hospital, Sector-16, Chd 10 06 04 05 05 3 Dispensary, Sector-22, Chd 09 03 06 05 04 4 Dispensary, Sector-40, Chd 09 04 05 05 04 5 INSCOL,Sector-32,Chd 09 04 05 03 06 Table 3: Sample size of doctors
S.No. Name Of Institution Sample Size Total Sample Size =100
Male Female Profession=Clerk Age Group (yrs.)
1 Food and Supply Deptt., Haryana, sec-17 Chd 13 08 05 04 09 2 P.U. sec-14, Chd 12 07 05 04 08 3 Punjab National Bank, sec-23, Chandigarh 12 05 07 05 07 4 D.E.O., sec-9, Chd 13 05 08 08 05 Table 4: Sample size of clerks
S.No. Name Of Institution Sample Size Total Sample Size =50
Male Female Profession=Engineer
Age Group (yrs.)
1 Larson And Tourbo Ltd. Sector-9, Chd 11 07 04 03 08 2 Siemens Ltd. Sector-9, Chd 10 06 04 04 06 3 Siemens Ltd. Sector-9 Chd 09 04 05 05 04 4 GE Ltd Sector-9, Chandigarh. 08 05 05 05 03 5 Asea Brown Pebovery Ltd. Sector-9,Chd 12 04 08 03 Table 5: Sample Size of Engineers
Table 2: shows the sample size of male and female teachers from different age groups teaching in various schools of Chandigarh. Table 3: shows the sample size of male and female doctors from different age groups working in various medical organisations in Chandigarh. Table 4: shows the sample size of male and female clerks from different age groups employed in various institutions in Chandigarh. Table 5: shows the sample size of male and female engineers from different age groups employed in various private companies in Chandigarh.
3.1.4 OCCUPATIONAL STRESS INVENTORY (OSI) Occupational Stress Inventory (OSI) is a concise measure of three dimensions or domains of occupational adjustment: Occupational Stress, Psychological strain, and Coping resources. For each of these domains, scales measuring specific attributes of the environment provide detailed information or individual that represents important facts of domain. For the present study, we have used Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) (Osipow and Spokane,1986).
3.1.5 OCCUPATIONAL ROLE QUESTIONNAIRE (ORQ) (Osipow and Spokane,1986) The occupational stress domain is measured by a set of six scales, which are collectively called the Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ).
The ORQ scales are: Role Overload (RO) measures the extent to which job demands exceed resources (personal and work place), and the extent to which an individual is able to accomplish expected workloads.
Role Insufficiency (RI) measures the extent to which the individual’s training, education skills and experience are appropriate to job requirements.
Role Ambiguity (RA) measures the extent to which the priorities, expectations, and evaluation criteria are clear to the individual. Role Boundary (RB) measures the extent to which the individual has or feels, a great deal of responsibility for the performance and welfare of others on the job.
Responsibility (R) measures the extent to which the individuals ha or feels, a great deal to responsibility for the performance and welfare of others on the job.
Physical Environment (PE) measures the extent to which the individual is exposed to high levels of environmental toxins or extreme physical conditions.
3.1.6 RELIABILITY An internal consistency analyses was completed on from Ex-2 using a sample of 549 adults. Alpha coefficient for total questionnaire scores was 0.89 (ORQ), 0.94 (PSQ) and 0.99 (PRQ). Coefficient for individual scale ranged from 0.71 to 0.94. Correlation among the total questionnaire and the 14 individual scales of the ORQ, PSQ and PRQ are a substantial and significant correlation. (0.24) was found between the PRQ and PSQ total scores and a similar negative correlation was found between ORQ and PRQ total scores (-0.25).
3.1.7 VALIDITY Validity data for the OSI are derived from four principle sources : 1. Factor Analytic studies. 2. Co-relational studies of the relationship of the scale to variables of practical and theoretical importance. 3. Studies using the scales as outcome measure following stress reduction treatment. 4. Studies of stress, strain and coping model employing comparison of selected criterion group.
3.1.8 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA SHEET A demographic data sheet was prepared by the investigator to collect information about the Occupational Stress among employees of different careers of Chandigarh selected at random as in teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers. For this purpose information about their names, age, sex and occupation of employees of different organisations and institutions were enquired into.
3.1.9 ADMINISTRATION The Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ) requires approximately 10 to 15 minutes to complete. Administrator should begin by having the respondent complete the demographic information on rating sheet (name, sex, type of school, affiliated to, medium of instruction). The instructions in the item booklet should then be reviewed to ensure that the respondent understand the rating procedure and response items or option. A seventh grade reading level is required to complete the ORQ.
3.1.10 SCORING Scoring will be done according to the instructions given in the manual. Item numbers (RO-5,6; RI-11, 14,15,16,17, 19; RA-21,22,24,25,27,28,29,30; RB-34,35,37,38,40; R-50) are reverse rated (i.e. a rating of “never” produces a score of “5” on above items and “1” on other item). These totals constitute the raw scores for each of the scale.
3.2 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES In accordance with the various objectives of the study, and to test the hypotheses based on the objectives following statistical techniques were used. 1. Descriptive techniques such as Mean, Median, Mode, Standard deviation will be worked out to ascertain the nature of distribution of scores. 2. t-Ratio and ANOVA will be used to see the significant difference.
CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA 4.1 ANALYSIS The next step after the collection of data is of its analysis because the data as such has no meaning unless it is analysed and interpreted by sophisticated statistical techniques in order to arrive at certain reliable and valid conclusions. Analysis of data thus involves the breaking of the complex factors into simple parts and putting them in new arrangements for the purpose of interpretation.
4.1.1 RESULTS BASED ON DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS
Table 4.1.1: shows the means, S.D. on the variables of occupational stress in case of total sample (N=200) Var.Code Means S.D. Min.value Max.Value Range RO 25.35 3.84 19 35 16 RI 21.59 1.10 20 23 03 RA 21.34 0.76 19 23 04 RB 22.63 2.92 18 34 16 R 24.00 2.81 19 32 13 PE 20.22 0.69 19 21 02 OSD 137.32 10.23 118 160 42
INTERPRETATIONS: The occupational stress domain is measured set of six scales, which are collectively called as Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ). Role Overload (RO): The mean value of Role Overload (RO) is 25.35 and S.D. is 3.84. Its minimum value is 19 and maximum score is 35. It shows that employees from different professions have a high average level of overload, thus indicating that they have an increasing and unreasonable workload. They find themselves needing more help and working under tight guidelines.
Role Insufficiency (RI) : The mean value of Role insufficiency (RI) is 21.59 and S.D. is 1.10. Its minimum and maximum score is 20 and 23, respectively which shows that employees have high levels of stress. It indicates that employees have a poor fit between their skills and the job they are performing. They also report boredom and under utilization of their skills and that their career is not progressive, and has little future.
Role Ambiguity (RA): The reported mean value is 21.34 and S.D. is .76 where the maximum score on this measure can be 23 and minimum score is 19. It shows that employees have less clarity about job expectations. They report a poor sense of what they are expected to do. Also, they face conflicting demands from their superiors. Hence, they actually have no clear idea of what they should do to get ahead.
Role Boundary (RB): The mean value for Role Boundary is 22.63 and S.D. is 2.92 where the maximum and minimum scores are 34 and 18 respectively. It indicates that employees report not feeling proud of what they do and do not have a stake in the enterprise.
Responsibility (R) : The mean value of responsibility is 24.00 and S.D. is 2.81. The minimum and maximum scores are 19 and 32 respectively. It indicates that employees have high levels of responsibility for the activities and work performance of subordinates. They are worried that others will not perform well. They are sought out for leadership and frequently have to respond to others problem.
Physical Environment (PE): The mean value for physical environment (PE) is 20.22 and S.D. is .69 where the maximum and minimum scores are 21 and 19 respectively. It indicates that employees are exposed to high level of noise, wetness, dust, heat, cold, light, poisonous substances. Occupational Stress Total (OST): The mean value on the measure of occupational stress total is 137.32 and S.D. is 10.23. Maximum score is 160 and minimum score is 118, which indicates in average level of stress experience by employees of different professions.
4.1.2 RESULT BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS:
Table 4.I.2 depicts the mean, S.D. and F-Ratio by using ANOVA Test of the measure of occupational stress among employees of different professions (Teachers, Doctors, Clerks, Engineers) of Chandigarh. Var.Code Teachers Mean S.D. Doctors Mean S.D. Clerks Mean S.D. Engineers Mean S.D. Df F-Ratio RO 27.10 4.39 26.40 3.07 24.0 3.72 23.90 3.01 196 10.4* RI 21.56 1.09 21.70 1.12 21.32 0.99 21.78 1.18 196 1.67 RA 21.46 0.67 21.22 0.79 21.40 0.80 21.26 0.77 196 1.10 RB 24.10 4.55 22.90 1.88 22.20 1.85 21.28 1.70 196 9.24* R 24.60 2.66 25.90 2.82 22.90 2.76 22.80 1.80 196 14.9* PE 20.28 0.78 20.30 0.61 20.12 0.68 20.18 0.69 196 0.74 OST 141.8 11.51 140.9 8.42 130.0 9.53 133.6 8.0 196 12.1*
- Significant at 0.01 level.
INTERPRETATIONS: The occupational stress domain is measured set of six scales, which are collectively called as Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ). Role Overload (RO) : Close observation of Table on the variable of RO shows that the mean value and S.D. of teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers are 27.10, 26.40, 24.00, 23.90 and 4.39, 3.07, 3.72, 3.01 respectively. The F Ratio for RO is 10.44 which is highly significant at 0.01 level. This shows that teachers and doctors have increased work load than clerks and engineers and they are unsupported by needed resources. Role Insufficiency (RI): The mean value and S.D. of different occupations of RI are 21.56, 21.70, 21.32, 21.78 and 1.09, 1.12, 0.99 and 1.18 for teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers, respectively. The F Ratio for RI is 1.67 which is not significant. It indicates that employees from different occupations show no significant difference in RI. They all report a poor fit between their skills and job they are performing.
Role Ambiguity (RA): On the measure of RA the F value is 1.10 which is not significant and mean values and S.D. for teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers are 21.46, 21.22, 21.40, 21.28 and 0.67, 0.79, 0.80 and 0.77, respectively. It indicates that the all employees from different professions report a poor sense of what they are expected to do. They may also report no clear sense of what they should do to get ahead.
Role Boundary (RB): The mean values and S.D. of teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers for RB are 24.10, 22.90, 22.20, 21.28 and 4.55, 1.88, 1.85 and 1.70. The F Value for RB is 9.24, which is significant at 0.01 level. It indicates that teachers report feeling caught between conflicting supervisory demands and factions and they may also report being unclear about authority lines and having more than one person telling them what to do.
Responsibility (R) : On the measure of R the F value is 14.99 which is significant at 0.01 level and mean values for teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers are 24.60, 25.70, 22.90, 22.80 with S.D. 2.68, 2.82, 2.76, 1.80, respectively. F value indicates that there is significant difference of occupational stress between employees of different occupations. Mean value and S.D. indicates that teachers and doctors reports high level of responsibility for the activities and work performance of subordinates than clerks and engineers.
Physical Environment (PE): The mean values of teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers for PE are 20.28, 20.30, 20.12, 20.18 with S.D. 0.78, 0.61, 0.68 and 0.69, respectively. The F value for PE is 0.74 which is not significant. It indicates that all employees from different occupations are exposed to average or normal level of noise, heat, light and cold. They also report having erratic work schedule or feeling isolated.
Occupation Stress Total (OST): On the measure of OST the F value is 12.16 which is significant at 0.01 level and indicates that there exists significant difference between employees of different occupations of Chandigarh. The mean values of teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers for OST are 141.80, 140.90, 133.00, 133.60 with S.D. 11.51, 8.42, 9.53 and 8.00 respectively. It indicates that teachers and doctors are slightly more stressed than clerks and engineers.
Table 4.1.3 Depicts the t-value for the significance of difference between males (N=100) and females (N=100) employees from different occupations of Chandigarh.
Var.Code Males (N=100) Mean S.D. Females (N=100) Mean S.D. dF t-value Sig. RO 22.80 1.92 27.9 3.58 198 -12.55* 0.000 RI 21.33 1.10 21.85 1.05 198 -03.40* 0.001 RA 21.28 0.81 21.39 0.70 198 -01.01 0.311 RB 21.55 1.75 23.69 3.44 198 -05.50* 0.000 R 24.10 2.52 23.90 3.09 198 -05.01 0.617 PE 20.14 0.72 20.30 0.65 198 -01.63 0.104 OST 132.25 7.28 140.40 10.26 198 -08.06* 0.000 GRAPH-2
INTERPRETATIONS: The occupational stress domain is measured set of six scales, which are collectively called as Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ).
Role Overload (RO): On the measure of Role Overload (RO) the mean values for males and females employees of four different professions are 22.80 and 27.90 with S.D. 1.92 and 3.58, respectively. The t-value is –12.55 which is highly significant at 0.01 level, indicates that, female employees of Chandigarh increased work load as compared to males and females need more help with their work. They feel lack of competency for the job at hand as compared to the males employees of different professions.
Role Insufficiency (RI): The mean values of males and female employees are found to be 21.33 and 21.85 with S.D. 1.10 and 1.05, respectively. The t-value is –3.40 which is significant at 0.01 level which indicates that the female employees report a poor fit between their skills and jobs they are performing as compared to the male employees.
Role Ambiguity (RA): On the measure of RA the t-value is –1.01 which is not significant and mean value for male and female employees of Chandigarh are 21.28 and 21.39 with S.D. 0.81 and 0.70 respectively, which suggests that both males as well as females report a poor sense of what they are expected to do. They report no clear sense of what they should do to get ahead.
Role Boundary (RB): On the measure of RB the t-value is -5.56 which is significant at 0.01 level and mean values are found to be 21.55 and 23.69 with S.D. 1.75 and 3.44, respectively which shows that female employees of Chandigarh report feeling of being caught between conflicting supervisory demands and factions as compared to male employees of Chandigarh.
Responsibility (R): On the measure of R t-value is 0.501 which is not significant and mean values are found to be 24.10 and 23.90 with S.D. 2.52 and 3.09, respectively. It implies that both male and female employees of Chandigarh face more responsibilities for activities and work performance.
Physical Environment (PE): On the measure of physical environment the t-value is –1.63 which is not significant and mean values are found to be 20.14 and 20.30 with S.D. 0.72 and 0.65, respectively. It implies that both male and female employees of Chandigarh show no significant difference in respect of physical environment. They exposed to average or normal level of noise, heat, light and cold.
Occupational Stress Total (OST): On the measure of OST there exists a significant difference between male and female employees of Chandigarh, the t-value –8.6 which is significant at 0.01 level and mean values are 130.25 and 142.40 for males and females with S.D. 7.28 and 10.26, respectively. This shows that there exists a significant difference between occupational stress in relation to male and female employees of Chandigarh.
Table 4.1.4 Depicts the t-value for the significance of difference between less experienced (N=100) and more experienced (N=100) employees from different occupations of Chandigarh.
Var.Code Less experienced (N=100) Mean S.D. More experienced (N=100) Mean S.D. dF t-value Sig. RO 26.98 3.67 24.12 3.50 198 5.58* 0.000 RI 21.66 1.16 21.54 1.06 198 0.80 0.421 RA 21.38 0.75 21.30 0.77 198 0.78 0.436 RB 22.81 2.90 22.47 2.95 198 0.81 0.418 R 25.37 2.67 22.96 2.47 198 6.58* 0.000 PE 20.27 0.74 20.18 0.65 198 0.83 0.404 OST 141.22 9.69 134.29 9.66 198 4.94* 0.000
- Significant at 0.01 level.
INTERPRETATIONS: The occupational stress domain is measured set of six scales, which are collectively called as Occupational Role Questionnaire (ORQ).
Role Overload (RO): On the measure of Role Overload (RO) the mean values for less experienced and more experienced employees of four different professions are 26.98 and 24.12 with S.D. 3.67 and 3.50, respectively. The t-value is 5.58 which is highly significant at 0.01 level, indicates that, less experienced employees of Chandigarh increased work load as compared to more experienced employees and less experienced employees need more help with their work. They feel lack of competency for the job at hand as compared to the more experienced employees of different professions.
Role Insufficiency (RI) : The mean values of less experienced and more experienced employees are 21.66 and 21.54 with S.D. 1.16 and 1.06, respectively. The t-value is 0.80 which is not significant which shows that both less and more experienced employees of Chandigarh report a poor fit between their skills and jobs they are performing.
Role Ambiguity (RA): On the measure of RA the t-value is 0.78 which is not significant and mean values for less experienced and more experienced employees are 21.38 and 21.30 with S.D. 0.75 and 0.77, respectively, which suggests that both less experienced and more experienced employees report a poor sense of what they are expected to do.
Role Boundary (RB): On the measure of RB the t-value is 0.81 which is not significant and mean values for less experienced and more experienced employees are found to be 22.81 and 22.47 with S.D. 2.90 and 2.95, respectively which shows that both less experienced and more experienced employees report feeling of being caught between conflicting supervisory demands and factions.
Responsibilities (R): On the measure of R t-value is 6.58 which is significant at 0.01 level and mean values for less experienced and more experienced employees are 25.37 and 22.96 with S.D. 2.67 and 2.47, respectively. It indicates that less experienced employees face more responsibilities for activities and work performance. Physical Environment (PE): On the measure of PE the mean values for less experienced and more experienced employees are 20.27 and 20.18 with S.D. 0.74 and 0.65, respectively. The t-value is 0.83 which is not significant and indicates that both less experienced and more experienced employees are exposed to average of normal level of noise, heat, light and cold.
Occupational Stress Total (OST): On the measure of OST the t-value is 4.94 which is significant at 0.01 level and the mean values of less experienced and more experienced employees are 141.22 and 134.39 with S.D. 9.69 and 9.66, respectively. It indicates that there exists a significant difference of occupational stress between less experienced and more experienced employees of different occupations of Chandigarh.
4.2 OVERALL CONCLUSION OF DIFFERENTIAL ANALYSIS
1. According to hypothesis I, on the measure of occupational stress, results indicates that there exists a significant difference of occupational stress between employees of different professions of Chandigarh. The values for Role Overload (RO), Role Boundary (RB), Responsibility (R) and Occupational Stress Total are significant at 0.01 level while the values of Role Insufficiency (RI), Role Ambiguity (RA) and Physical Environment (PE) are not significant. Thus, hypothesis is accepted in this case. 2. According to hypothesis II, there exists significant difference of occupational stress of males and female employees of different occupations of Chandigarh. The t-values for Role Overload (RO), Role Insufficiency (RI), Role Boundary (RB) and Occupational Stress Total (OST) are significant at 0.01 level whereas the values of Role Ambiguity (RA), Responsibility (R), Physical Environment (PE) are not significant which shows that females share more work load and responsibilities are unsupported by needed resources. Thus hypothesis II is accepted.
3. According to hypothesis III, there exists significant difference of occupational stress of less and more experienced employees of different professions of Chandigarh. The t-value for Role Overload (RO), Responsibility (R) and Occupational Stress Total (OST) are significant at 0.01 level whereas the values of Role Insufficiency (RI), Role Ambiguity (RA), Role Boundary (RB) and Physical Environment (PE) are not significant which shows that less experienced employees share more work load and face more responsibilities. Thus hypothesis III is accepted.
CHAPTER 5 SUMMARY 5.1 INTRODUCTION
In today’s world, the nature of work is changing at whirlwind speed. Perhaps now more than ever before, job stress poses a threat to the health of workers and, in turn, to their organizations.
While stress is readily acknowledged to be a common feature of modern life, defining stress, its causes, symptoms and effects is a very complex matter. It is often characterized as a primitive stone-age reaction to modern organizational and social factors, known as stressors (Hazards,1994).
Stress is defined by Richards as ‘the three way relationship between demands on a person, that person’s feelings about those demands and their ability to cope with those demands’. Stress is most likely to occur in situations where: 1. Demands are high 2. The amount of control an individual has is low 3. There is limited support or help available for the individual
Though occupational stress is a much talked of phenomenon, however there is little consensus between different professional groups regarding its level of existence. Occupational stress is a real phenomenon and high levels are reliably associated with a range of causal factors, including those intrinsic to the job, individual vulnerability and systemic influences. Occupational stress has been defined by Allen, Hitt and Green (1982) as disruption in individual’s physiological and psychological homeostasis that force them to deviate from usual functioning in interaction with their jobs and work environment.
Working in a stressful environment not only increases the risk of physical illness or distress, but also increases the likelihood of workplace accidents. While legislation provides some guidelines for risk assessment of physical hazards, there remains limited guidance on the risks of psychosocial hazards. 'Excessive stress can effectively destroy the quality of life for the individual, his or her family and for society as a whole. It has become as dangerous as pollution to modern society' ( Purkis, 1993). For any problem to be tackled successfully there has to be an identification of the problem. Stress levels in any occupation can vary depending upon the nature and kind of the work. Also, personal attributes as age of the person can result in varying stress levels. Besides these above stated factors certain natural conditions can also lead to stress in one’s occupation for instance in the case of gender variations. In this light the following can be stated as the problem being identified by the study.
5.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
A STUDY OF THE OCCUPATIONAL STRESS AMONG EMPLOYEES FROM DIFFERENT CAREERS OF CHANDIGARH.
5.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To study occupational stress among employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 2. To study occupational stress among males and females employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 3. To study occupational stress among less and more experienced employees of different careers of Chandigarh.
5.4 HYPOTHESES 1. There exists a significant difference of occupational stress among employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 2. There exists a significant difference of occupational stress among males and females employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 3. There exists significant difference of occupational stress among less and more experienced employees of different careers of Chandigarh. 5.5 DELIMINATIONS 1. The sample size was 200 employees. 2. The area of study was limited to Chandigarh. 3. For data collection, occupational stress inventory was used.
5.6 SAMPLE The study was conducted on 200 males and females employees (like teachers, doctors, engineers and clerks)
5.7 TOOLS 1. Occupatonal Role Questionnaire (ORQ) from occupational stress inventory (Osipow and Spokane, 1987) was used as the tool from research. 2. Demographic Data sheet was made by the investigator.
5.8 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES
In accordance with the various objectives of the study, and to test the hypotheses based on the objectives following statistical techniques were used. 1. Descriptive techniques such as Mean, Median, Mode, Standard deviation will be worked out to ascertain the nature of distribution of scores. 2. t-Ratio and ANOVA will be used to see the significant difference.
5.9 CONCLUSION On the basis of the survey conducted from the random sampling of 200 employees of four professions (teachers, doctors, clerks and engineers) of Chandigarh the following deductions can be made: Out of the six variables of occupational stress as used in the study according to the inventory by Osipow and Spokane three variables show significant difference of occupational stress among the surveyed employees. In terms of Role Overload, Role Boundary and Responsibility the teachers and doctors are highly stressed as compared to clerks and engineers. Both the teachers and the doctors face a significant amount of workload which makes them feel inadequately trained for the job at hand and also leaves them in need of more help. However, in terms of Role Insufficiency, Role Ambiguity and sensitivity towards physical environment they share more or less equal stress. Thus, this shows that their needs for success and recognition may not have been met with. Also, results according to gender classification show that females are more stressed due to their occupation as compared to the males. The difference is significant in terms of work overload but the sensitivity towards physical conditions of noise, wetness, dust is more or less equal. In terms of experience in jobs it can be concluded that people who have less experience of the job are more stressed than the more experienced ones. For the former they feel more responsible than their more experienced colleagues, which could arise out of work quality comparisons with the latter. The above stated findings therefore prove that the hypothesis that there will exist significant difference between the employees of different professions, in terms of gender differences and experience stands accepted in this particular case.
5.10 SUGGESTIONS FOR FURTHER STUDIES 1. Stress is an integral part of life. Hence, further study can be undertaken to devise effective programmes to reduce stress in which the present study remains inadequate. 2. The present study is limited to Chandigarh. However, many inter-state researches can provide useful insight in the patterns of stress levels among various occupations. 3. This study was based on comparisons among employees of different professions. Useful studies can also be conducted by making similar comparisons among intra-professional groups such as that of elementary and high school teachers or between private and government employed professionals and employees. 4. Inter-regional comparisons of various employees working in urban and rural areas can be undertaken with respect to the present study to arrive at differences in stress levels due to jobs. 5. A comparative study on the causes of occupational stress among various occupations can be conducted. 6. Studies similar to the present one may be taken up but with variables other than those used in the study for instance instead of using ANOVA the research method of Post Hoc can be used which could help in identifying stress levels of individual occupations.
Auerbach, Stephan. M. (1996). Stress: Behavioral and Psychological Responses. An International Encyclopedia of Psychology. Volume 01. London. Beckwith, Bill. E. (1996). Stress and Endocrine System. An International Encyclopedia of Psychology. Volume 01. London. Borg, M.C. (1990). Occupational Stress in British educational setting-a review. Educational Psychology. Volume 10. No:02. Caplin, M.L. (1985). Psychological stress in work. Management and Labour studies. A Psychological Abstract. Volume 73. No.04-06. Chandler, S.K. (1976). “Teacher stress and Job satisfaction as they relate to the implementation of a court ordered Desegregation Plan.” Dissertation Abstract International. Volume 36. No.07 Cooper, C.L. & Marshall, J. (1976). Occupational sources of stress: a review of the literature to coronary heart disease and mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology. Volume 49. Cooper, C.L. (1986). Job distress: recent research and the emerging role of the clinical occupational psychologist. Bulletin of the Psychological Society. Volume 39. Crow, A. & Crow, L. (1963). Mental Hygiene. New York: McGraw Hill Book Company. Folkman and Lazarus, R.S.(1984). If it changes it must be a process; study of emotion and coping during these stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Vol. 48. Hard Labour-Part 2: Stress and Health. www.1hc.org.uk/members/ pubs/books/h1/h102-01.htm-24k-13 jun 2005. Ivancevich, J.W. and Matterson, M.T. (1980). Stress and Work; A Managerial Perspective. Gllenview. Illinosis; Scott. Foreman & company. Jenecks, B. (1962): “Influence of the environment in preparing an animal to meet stress.” Doctoral Dissertation. Salt lake. City Uni of Utah. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders; www.findarticles.com/ p/articles/mi-Mofcb./is-2-9/ai-75433932-18k. Kahn R.L., Wofe, D.M.; Quinn, R.P;. Snoeck, J.E; and Rosenthal, R.A. (1964). Organisation of Stress. New York. Willey. Kaur, Kuljeet (2000). “Occupational Stress of High and Higher Secondary School Teachers in Relation To Mental Health and Coping Resources.” Thesis for Ph.D. (Educational), Panjab University. Lazarus, R.S. and Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. New York. Springer. Mc Grath, J.E. (1976). Stress and Behaviour in Organizations. In M.D. Dunnette.(Ed) 1976 Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Pschology, Palto. C.A. Counseling Psychological Stress. Mohan, Jitendra. (1992). Educational Psychology. Wiley Eastern Limited. New Delhi. Murhy, M.L. (1986). The relationship of selected variables to stress and job satisfaction of elementary school principals. Dissertation Abstract International. Volume 43. No.03. NIOSH. www.cdc.gov/niosh. Okebukola, P.A. & Jegede, O.J. (1989). Determinants of occupational stress among teachers of Nigeria. Education studies. Volume 15. No. 01. Osipow, S.H. & Spokane, A.R. (1987). The occupational stress Inventory. Ordessa. FL.PAR. Pestonjee, D.M. (1992). Stress and coping: The Indian experience. New Delhi. Sage Pub. Quick, J.C. and Quick, J.D. (1984). Organizational Stress and Preventive Managerial Stress. Mc Grew Hill New York. Randall.R., Ross (1994). Intervention in Occupational Stress. Sage Publication Ltd. Rao, S.N. (1986). Work adjustment and occupational Satisfaction of Teachers. Mittal Publication. New Delhi. Review of the research into the primary causes of stress….; www.gre.gc.uk/ edu web/interest/h and s/stress 2.htm-42k. Richardes, C. (1989). The Health of Doctors. London: The King Fund. Speilberger, C.D. (1979). Anxiety & Behavior. New York. Academic Stress. Srivastava. A.K. (1999). Management of Stress. Delhi. Sage Publications. Tim, Newton (1995). Managing Stress, emotion and power at work. Sage Publication Ltd. www.aare.edu.au/02 pap/bro 02236.htm-60k www.ezinearticles.com/? Haris-stress-inventory and id = 48173-31k www.ieu.asn.au/ohs/stress burnout.html-49k www.ild.org/public/english/protection/safe work/stress/what is htm-23k 13 June 2005. www.isec 2000.org.uk/abstracts/papers-e/eloff-1.htm-48k www.neahin.org/programs/mental health/stress guide-1.htm-55k www.sage publications.com.
www.teacher support.Info/index.efm? p=2172-37k