Black's opening move aims to transpose into a Dutch Defence. d4 gives a main-line Dutch, while c4 and g3 reserve options.
A major independent option is e4. The sacrifice of White's e-pawn is borrowed from the Staunton Gambit, but the positional themes are very different since here White's king's knight can reach g5.
d3 is a way of preparing e4.
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- Batsford Chess Openings 2 (1989, 1994). Garry Kasparov, Raymond Keene. ISBN 0-8050-3409-9.