An Ionic bond is a bond where one element give away electrons to another element. This makes one element positively charged and the other negatively charged. Ions are elements who have gotten rid of or gained electrons. For instance, sodium has one electron in its valiant cell. This electron is very inconvenient so the sodium just gets rid of the extra electron. Then, sodium has 11 protons and 10 elections. This makes sodium 1+.
These are ions that work together like one ion. If you had NaNO3, The Na would have bonded with NO3 and not three Os and an N. This is because these elements work together lie one ion.
Ions of Multi-Valiant MetalsEdit
When working with an ion that can have different numbers of protons, the valences need to be taken into account. If you have an iron oxide compound, it could either be FeO or Fe2O3. When the iron has a charge of 2+, then it bonds with the oxygen (which has a charge of 2-) with one of each. This makes FeO. If the iron has a charge of 3+, then it has to from with the oxygen with two irons and three oxygens. Thus creating Fe2O3.
Covalent bonds are elements that borrow electrons. Oxygen needs two more electrons to fill his valiant shell. Whenhe bonds with another oxygen he solves this problem. The first oxygen borrows two of the second oxygen's electrons some of the time and the second oxygen uses two of the first oxygen's electrons. This isn't as strong of a bond as an ionic bond.
polar covalent bondsEdit
When oxygen forms with two hydrogens, it forms water. Oxygen is more negative than hydrogen. Since opposites attract and things with the same charge repel each other, the hydrogens are on opposite sides of the oxygen. The different poles on a covalent bond make it interact differently with other compounds like itself. When water is in liquid form, the molecules slip by without too much difficulty. The opposites of different compounds do attract a bit, but nothing crazy happens. However, when the compound freezes, something crazy happens! Usually elements bunch up together and become more dense than the liquid, but that is not the case with polar covalent bonds. The elements with the same charge refuse to be bunched together. Instead, they form this large, intricate matrix where the opposites touch but nothing else does. There is lots of empty space in between the elements so the solid is much less dense than the liquid. That is why ice floats in water and iron sinks in molten iron.