Last modified on 16 April 2012, at 00:37

Canadian LGBT History/British North America/Overview

Canada under British rule (1763–1867)Edit

Map showing British territorial gains following the "Seven Years' War". Treaty of Paris gains in pink, and Spanish territorial gains after the Treaty of Fontainebleau in yellow.

With the end of the Seven Years' War and the signing of the Treaty of Paris (1763), France ceded almost all of its territory in mainland North America, except for fishing rights off Newfoundland and two small islands where it could dry that fish. In turn France received the return of its sugar colony, Guadeloupe, which it considered more valuable than Canada.[1]

The new British rulers retained and protected most of the property, religious, political, and social culture of the French-speaking habitants, guaranteeing the right of the Canadiens to practice the Catholic faith and to the use of French civil law (now Quebec law) through the Quebec Act of 1774.[2] The Royal Proclamation of 1763 had been issued in October, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory.[3] The proclamation organized Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations between the British Crown and Aboriginal peoples through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier.[3]

American Revolution and LoyalistsEdit

During the American Revolution there was some sympathy for the American cause among the Canadiens and the New Englanders in Nova Scotia.[4] Neither party joined the rebels, although several hundred individuals joined the revolutionary cause.[4][5] An invasion of Canada; by the Continental Army in 1775, to take Quebec from British control was halted at the Battle of Quebec, by Guy Carleton, with the assistance of local militias. The defeat of the British army during the Siege of Yorktown in October 1781, signaled the end of Britain's struggle to suppress the American Revolution.[6] When the British evacuated New York City in 1783, they took many Loyalist refugees to Nova Scotia, while other Loyalists went to southwestern Quebec. So many Loyalists arrived on the shores of the St. John River that a separate colony—New Brunswick—was created in 1784;[7] followed in 1791 by the division of Quebec into the largely French-speaking Lower Canada along the St. Lawrence River and Gaspé Peninsula and an anglophone Loyalist Upper Canada, with its capital settled by 1796 in York, in present-day Toronto.[8] After 1790 most of the new settlers were American farmers searching for new lands; although generally favorable to republicanism, they were relatively non-political and stayed neutral in the War of 1812.[9]

The signing of the Treaty of Paris 1783, formally ended the war. Britain made several concessions to the Americans at the expense of the North American colonies.[10] Notably, the borders between Canada and the United States were officially demarcated.[10] All land south of the Great Lakes, which was formerly a part of the Province of Quebec and included modern day Michigan, Illinois and Ohio, was ceded to the Americans. Fishing rights were also granted to the United States in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and on the coast of Newfoundland and the Grand Banks.[10] The British ignored part of the treaty and maintained their military outposts in the Great Lakes areas it ceded to the U.S., and continued to supply the Indians there with munitions. The British evacuated the outposts with the Jay Treaty of 1795, but the continued supply of munitions irritated the Americans in the run-up to the war of 1812.[11]

War of 1812Edit

Loyalist Laura Secord warning the British (Lieutenant – James FitzGibbon) and First Nations of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams June 1813. – by Lorne Kidd Smith, c. 1920

The War of 1812 was fought between the United States and the British with the British North American colonies being heavily involved.[12] Greatly outgunned by the British Royal Navy, the American war plans focused on an invasion of Canada (especially what is today eastern and western Ontario). The American frontier states voted for war to suppress the First Nations raids that frustrated settlement of the frontier.[12] The war on the border with the U.S. was characterized by a series of multiple failed invasions and fiascos on both sides. American forces took control of Lake Erie in 1813, driving the British out of western Ontario, killing the Native American leader Tecumseh, and breaking the military power of his confederacy.[13] The war was overseen by Isaac Brock, with the assistance of First Nations and loyalist informants like Laura Secord.[14]

The War ended with the Treaty of Ghent of 1814, and the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817.[12] A demographic result was the shifting of American migration from Upper Canada to Ohio, Indiana and Michigan.[12] After the war, supporters of Britain tried to repress the republicanism in Canada, that was common among American immigrants to Canada.[12] The troubling memory of the war and the American invasions etched itself into the consciousness of Canadians as distrust of the intentions of the United States towards the British presence in North America.[15]pp. 254–255

Rebellions and the Durham ReportEdit

The rebellions of 1837 against the British colonial government took place in both Upper and Lower Canada. In Upper Canada, a band of Reformers under the leadership of William Lyon Mackenzie took up arms in a disorganized and ultimately unsuccessful series of small-scale skirmishes around Toronto, London, and Hamilton.[16]

In Lower Canada, a more substantial rebellion occurred against British rule. Both English- and French-Canadian rebels, sometimes using bases in the neutral United States, fought several skirmishes against the authorities. The towns of Chambly and Sorel were taken by the rebels, and Quebec City was isolated from the rest of the colony. Montreal rebel leader Robert Nelson read the "Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada" to a crowd assembled at the town of Napierville in 1838.[17] The rebellion of the Patriote movement were defeated after battles across Quebec. Hundreds were arrested, and several villages were burnt in reprisal.[17]

British Government then sent Lord Durham to examine the situation, he stayed in Canada only five months before returning to Britain, and brought with him, his Durham Report which strongly recommended responsible government.[18] A less well received recommendation was the amalgamation of Upper and Lower Canada for the deliberate assimilation of the French-speaking population. [The Canadas were merged into a single colony, United Province of Canada, by the 1840 Act of Union, with responsible government achieved in 1848, a few months after it was granted to Nova Scotia.[18] The parliament of United Canada in Montreal was set on fire by a mob of Tories in 1849 after the passing of an indemnity bill for the people who suffered losses during the rebellion in Lower Canada.[19]

Between the Napoleonic Wars and 1850 some 800,000 immigrants came to the colonies of British North America, mainly from the British Isles as part of the great migration of Canada.[20] These included Gaelic-speaking Highland Scots displaced by the Highland Clearances to Nova Scotia and Scottish and English settlers to the Canadas, particularly Upper Canada. The Irish Famine of the 1840s significantly increased the pace of Irish Catholic immigration to British North America, with over 35,000 distressed Irish landing in Toronto alone in 1847 and 1848.[21]

Pacific coloniesEdit

Map of the Columbia District, also referred to as Oregon Country.

Spanish explorers had taken the lead in the Pacific Northwest coast, with the voyages of Juan José Pérez Hernández in 1774 and 1775.[22] By the time the Spanish determined to build a fort on Vancouver Island, the British navigator James Cook had visited Nootka Sound and charted the coast as far as Alaska, while British and American maritime fur traders had begun a busy era of commerce with the coastal peoples to satisfy the brisk market for sea otter pelts in China, thereby launching what became known as the China Trade.[23]

In 1789 war threatened between Britain and Spain on their respective rights; the Nootka Crisis was resolved peacefully largely in favor of Britain, the much stronger naval power. In 1793 Alexander MacKenzie, a Canadian working for the North West Company, crossed the continent and with his Aboriginal guides and French-Canadian crew, reached the mouth of the Bella Coola River, completing the first continental crossing north of Mexico, missing George Vancouver's charting expedition to the region by only a few weeks.[24] In 1821, the North West Company and Hudson's Bay Company merged, with a combined trading territory that was extended by a licence to the North-Western Territory and the Columbia and New Caledonia fur districts, which reached the Arctic Ocean on the north and the Pacific Ocean on the west.[25]

The Colony of Vancouver Island was chartered in 1849, with the trading post at Fort Victoria as the capital. This was followed by the Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands in 1853, and by the creation of the Colony of British Columbia in 1858 and the Stikine Territory in 1861, with the latter three being founded expressly to keep those regions from being overrun and annexed by American gold miners.[26] The Colony of the Queen Charlotte Islands and most of the Stikine Territory were merged into the Colony of British Columbia in 1863 (the remainder, north of the 60th Parallel, became part of the North-Western Territory).[26]

ReferencesEdit

  1. Helen Dewar, "Canada or Guadeloupe?: French and British Perceptions of Empire, 1760–1763," Canadian Historical Review, Dec 2010, Vol. 91 Issue 4, pp 637–660
  2. "Original text of The Quebec Act of 1774". Canadiana (Library and Archives Canada). 2004 (1774). http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/PreConfederation/qa_1774.html. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  3. a b Maton, William F (1996). "The Royal Proclamation". The Solon Law Archive. http://www.solon.org/Constitutions/Canada/English/PreConfederation/rp_1763.html. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  4. a b McNaught, Kenneth (1976). The Pelican History of Canada. Pelican. p. 2d ed. 53. ISBN 0140210830. 
  5. Raddall, Thomas Head (2003). Halifax Warden of the North. McClelland and Stewart. p. 85. ISBN 1551090600. 
  6. "The expansion and final suppression of smuggling in Britain". Smuggling.co.uk. http://www.smuggling.co.uk/history_expansion.html. Retrieved 2010-08-23. 
  7. "Territorial Evolution, 1867". Natural Resources Canada. 2010. http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/auth/english/maps/historical/territorialevolution/1867/1. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  8. Armstrong, Frederick H (1985). Handbook of Upper Canadian Chronology. Dundurn Press. ISBN 0-919670-92-X. http://books.google.ca/books?id=ZL9EJW4v2FYC&lpg=PA2&dq=Handbook%20of%20Upper%20Canadian%20Chronology&pg=PA2#v=onepage&q&f=true. 
  9. Landon, Fred (1941). Western Ontario and the American Frontier. Carleton University Press. pp. 17–22. ISBN 0771097344. 
  10. a b c Howard Jones (February 2002). Crucible of power: a history of American foreign relations to 1913. Rowman & Littlefield. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8420-2916-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=TFyLOUrdGFwC&pg=PA23. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  11. Timothy D. Willig (2008). Restoring the chain of friendship: British policy and the Indians of the Great Lakes, 1783–1815. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 243–44. ISBN 978-0-8032-4817-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=FtzyNOrEjY8C&pg=PP1. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  12. a b c d e Thompson, John Herd; Randall, Stephen J (2008). Canada and the United States: Ambivalent Allies. University of Georgia Press. pp. 19–24. ISBN 0820324035. http://books.google.ca/books?id=UVGHdmbzUTwC&lpg=PP1&dq=Canada%20and%20the%20United%20States%3A%20Ambivalent%20Allies&pg=PA19#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-09-01. 
  13. Allen, Robert S (2009). "Tecumseh". The Canadian Encyclopedia. http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0007898. Retrieved 2010-04-25. 
  14. "Biography of Laura Secord". University of Toronto – Université Laval (from the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online at Libraries and Archives Canada). 2000. http://www.warof1812.ca/laurasecord.htm. Retrieved 2010-06-21. 
  15. Gwyn, Richard (2008 Vol 1). Sir John A.: the Man Who Made Us. Random House of Canada Limited. ISBN 9780679314769. http://books.google.ca/books?id=CHs8qlWcl4gC&lpg=PP1&dq=Sir%20John%20A.%3A%20the%20Man%20Who%20Made%20Us%2C&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-04-27. 
  16. The 1837–1838 Rebellion in Lower Canada. McCord Museum's collections. 1999. accessdate 2006-12-10
  17. a b Kyte, Elinor (1985). Redcoats and Patriotes, The Rebellions in Lower Canada. Canadian War Museum publication. p. 6. ISBN 0802069304. http://books.google.ca/books?id=MF8Im65MTqsC&lpg=PA297&dq=Redcoats%20and%20Patriots%2C%20The%20Rebellions%20in%20Lower%20Canada&pg=PA6#v=onepage&q&f=true. 
  18. a b "1839–1849, Union and Responsible Government". Canada in the Making project. 2005. http://www.canadiana.org/citm/themes/constitution/constitution11_e.html. Retrieved 2010-04-11. 
  19. R. D. Francis; Richard Jones, Donald B. Smith, R. D. Francis; Richard Jones; Donald B. Smith (February 2009). Journeys: A History of Canada. Cengage Learning. p. 147. ISBN 9780176442446. http://books.google.com/books?id=GbbZRIOKclsC&pg=PA147. Retrieved 2011-06-15. 
  20. Robert Lucas, Jr. (2003). "The Industrial Revolution". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. http://www.minneapolisfed.org/pubs/region/04-05/essay.cfm. Retrieved 2007-11-14. "it is fairly clear that up to 1800 or maybe 1750, no society had experienced sustained growth in per capita income. (Eighteenth century population growth also averaged one-third of 1 percent, the same as production growth.) That is, up to about two centuries ago, per capita incomes in all societies were stagnated at around $400 to $800 per year." 
  21. McGowan, Mark (2009). Death or Canada: the Irish Famine Migration to Toronto 1847. Novalis Publishing Inc. p. 97. ISBN 2896461299. 
  22. Barman, Jean (1996). The West beyond the West: a history of British Columbia. University of Toronto Press. pp. 22–26. ISBN 0802071856. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_X_aK5pD5kgC&lpg=PA20&dq=Juan%20Jos%C3%A9%20P%C3%A9rez%20Hern%C3%A1ndez%20in%201774%20and%201775&pg=PA20#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-04-12. 
  23. Lutz, John Sutton (2009). Makuk – A New History of Aboriginal-White Relations. University of British Columbia Press. p. 44. ISBN 0774811404. http://books.google.com/books?id=J2MNSaoAecIC&lpg=PP1&dq=makuk&pg=PA44#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  24. Ormsby, Margaret (1976). British Coumbia:a History. Macmillan. p. 33. ISBN 0758188137. http://www.questia.com/library/book/british-columbia-a-history-by-margaret-a-ormsby.jsp. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  25. "Our History". Hudson's Bay Company. 2009. http://www.hbc.com/hbc/history/. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
  26. a b Barman, Jean (2007). The West Beyond the West-A History of British Columbia. University of Toronto Press. pp. 67–72. ISBN 0802071856. http://books.google.ca/books?id=_X_aK5pD5kgC&lpg=PA454&dq=The%20West%20Beyond%20the%20West-A%20History%20of%20British%20Columbia&pg=PP1#v=onepage&q&f=true. Retrieved 2010-04-16. 
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