||This tutorial relies on objects being created so that they are aligned to the view that you’re looking through. Versions 2.48 and above have changed the way this works. Visit Aligned to view issue to understand the settings that need to be changed.|
You should already know how to:
- Make a mesh
- Navigate the viewport
- Create, edit materials
This section will recap and introduce:
- Forming faces
- Merging vertices
- Object naming
For our premise, envision jeep tires. They're not too sleek but rather rugged for all kinds of terrain. We need a tire that can handle any obstacle in its way.
Model the tireEdit
Hit NUM1 to set front view ( XZ coordinates ), then delete the cube.
Create the outside of the tireEdit
Add a cylinder (SPACE > Add > Mesh > Cylinder, Shift -A on newer versions)
use 32 vertices, set the radius to 4, depth to 3, and un-click the "Cap Ends" button (For 2.6x choose Cap Fill Type: Nothing).
Create the inside of the tireEdit
Change to NUM1 view and make sure you are in Edit Mode.
Select all vertices, hit EKEY (for blender 2.5X and on-wards, also hit ESC then "Alt+EKEY" and choose INDIVIDUAL FACES) and extrude the individual faces into the circle by moving the mouse.
You may either type in -1.2 and hit enter, or Hold SHIFT CTRL while extruding the faces until the sides come in -1.200 units (in older versions of blender hit NKEY first)
Create the outside facesEdit
Rotate around the model and you'll notice the outside of the tire doesn't yet exist. Let's remedy this.
Go back to NUM1 view.
Invert selection (SPACE > Select > Inverse)
Newer versions: CTRL-I for inverse selection
Press FKEY to create the missing faces, in the menu that pops up select auto
Newer versions: no auto necessary.
noob note: these steps aren't working on 2.69, filled outer faces one by one in my case. unless theres a better way to do it.
noob note: You can use the F2 addon in Blender 2.69 to create faces quickly. Select an Edge and press F and it will create the face based on the direction of the mouse
In 2.69, it's better to use solidify after doing control CTRL-F than the above process. In edit mode, select all, then press CTRL-F, select solidify in the menu, and type 1.2 for thickness.
NOOB NOTE I had the same problem in 2.69. I simply reversed the process. I created the cylinder with a radius of 2.8, and extruded the faces POSITIVE 1.2. After subsurf, the tire look almost like the pictures, and has the added advantage of a more realistic inner edge without needing creases. There are no inner faces, but that is realistic, isn't it?
noob note: If you are using Blender 2.69, you can click E -> Esc then do the above process instead of use this process, everything gonna be fine.
Subsurf the tireEdit
Now it's time to make the tire look like a rugged tire.
Return to Object Mode, and apply a subsurf modifier (use the Add Modifier control (it looks like a wrench) and select Subdivision Surface - select VIEW level 1 or 2 to the mesh. The tire will now look like a bead necklace. ( If not, remove doubles by going into edit mode -> select all -> WKEY -> Remove Doubles. )
Crease the edgesEdit
A little creative use of creases will restore our tire.
Check that Limit Selection to Visible is off ( now called occlude background geometry on 2.49b).
Enter Edge Select mode
Bring up the circle selection tool (AKEY to unselect all, then CKEY).
Use the scroll wheel to change the circle selection size to be in the center of the tire, between the inside and outside edges. This will select all of the inside edges, as well as the triangles on the side of the tire, as in the picture below. In 2.68 or above you will have to hit ENTER to confirm the selection.
Now press SHIFT+EKEY to Crease these edges, you can type 1.000, and press ENTER, or hold CTRL to pull in steps till you see 1.000 in the status bar at the bottom of the view window.
Note: in 2.68 and above the outside edges of the tire don't crease using the above method. What worked fairly well is to use CTRL-I to invert the selection, then in face mode, hit EKEY -> ESC -> Alt-E -> Individual Faces and move the mouse to create a tread pattern on the tire.
Noob note: DO NOT turn the 'limit-selection' tool on for the above selection, also you MUST be in Edge Select Mode or the triangles will not get selected.
Noob note: Make sure that you are in orthogonal view because in perspective view you are not able to make this selection.
Model the hubcapEdit
The tire is almost done. Let's add a simple hubcap to it.
Create a cylinderEdit
Be sure you're in Edit Mode
Hit AKEY, once or twice till the wheel is selected
Hit NUM1 for front view
Press SHIFT+SKEY, from the popup menu, cursor->selection, to put the cursor at the center point of the existing tire
Hit space-> add-> cylinder with 32 vertices, radius of 1.9, depth of .5, and make sure the "Cap Ends" button is turned off,
Hit NUM7 for top view
Hit GKEY, then YKEY, then type 2.2, and hit ENTER
Create the outside of the capEdit
Hit AKEY once, so that nothing is selected
Hit NUM7 for top view
Zoom in with the MMB till the hub cap fills the view
be sure you're in Vertex select mode
Make sure Occlude Background Geometry Mode is off
hit BKEY for box select, then holding the LMB drag the box along the top edge of the hubcap.
Hit EKEY on the popup select Only Edges, then hit ESC, to create the edges we will need
Hit SKEY, then SHIFT+YKEY to only move in the XZ axis, then type in .35, and hit ENTER
Hit GKEY, then YKEY to only move the Y axiz, then type in .35, and hit ENTER
Create the Axle CoverEdit
We'll merge these vertices together to create a flat surface.
Hit EKEY, on the popup select only edges, then hit ESC, to create the edges we will need
Hit ALT+MKEY on the popup pick at center. Blender will reduce the 32 vertices to 1.
Hit NUM3 for side view
hit GKEY, then YKEY, to only move the Y axis, then type in -0.4, and hit ENTER
Final sizing of hub cap to tireEdit
The final mesh editing is to scale the hub cap to a size that is slightly larger than the hole of the tire.
hit NUM7 for top view
position the mouse over the hubcap, and press the LKEY to select the entire hubcap
Hit SKEY, then SHIFT+YKEY to only move the XZ axis, then type 1.48, and hit ENTER
Hit NUM3 for side view
Hit GKEY, then YKEY, to only move the Y axis, then type -1.11 (use -0.77 if you want your hubs sticking out), and hit ENTER
Renaming the WheelEdit
The last thing to do is to rename the wheel so we can find it easier later.
Enter Object mode and select the wheel only.
In the Link and Materials subwindow in Editing (F9) you'll see the Active Object name box. It should read OB:Tube in the grey box. This name was created because we started with a tube mesh. In newer versions, it will be cylinder instead of tube.
Click on the button and rename the object to something like 'wheel'. Save your file where you'll find it later and continue to the next step.
Noob note: although not something you should normally do, if you wish to create separately named objects for the hubcap and the wheel you could initially create them both separately in object mode, or split objects in edit mode with P (seParate) or in object mode, join objects with CTRL+JKEY (can cause side effects).
Change the materials to make it look like a tire. One object can have multiple colors/textures, as you will learn in future tutorials.