Biblical Studies/New Testament Commentaries/1 Corinthians/Chapter 13

1 Corinthians 13:1-13 (New International Version)
Love

1If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal. 2If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing. 3If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames,but have not love, I gain nothing. 4Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud. 5It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs. 6Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth. 7It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres.

8Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away. 9For we know in part and we prophesy in part, 10but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears. 11When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me. 12Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known.

13And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love.


BackgroundEdit

Historical ContextEdit

1 Corinthians 13, also referred to as "the hymn of love" is often noted for being the most loved chapter in the entire New Testament (Barclay, 116). [1] 1 Corinthians 13, following 12, reflects and adds to what Paul has just discussed in 1 Corinthians 12. Chapter 12 addresses individual's spiritual gifts and in chapter 13 he hopes to drown out the Corinthians high level of competition they hold with one another. The Corinthian are wondering whose spiritual gifts are greater and better than the others in order to establish some sort of superiority, but Paul follows up their intentions and questions with chapter 13, telling them that they need to love one another. Not only should they love each other, but they should love everyone else as well because we are all children of God. The Corinthians are wondering whose gifts are more important or considered more spiritual. Paul is trying to tell them that all of their gifts are equally important, and in exercising their gifts they should make sure that they are doing so with love seeping through their every action (Garland, 605) [2]


The setting of this letter takes place in Corinth. Note on the illustration below that the surrounding cities were other areas that Paul wrote letters to such as his letter to the Philippians in Philippi.

[3]

StructureEdit

1 Corinthians 13 is said to be the second part to a sequence of three chapters. Using the stylistic structure of A-B-A, Chapter 13 is section B. The perspective in Chapter 13 is from an ecclesiological perspective, and is both anthropological and theological. The Structure of Chapter 13 can be divided into three different parts in a chiastic manner. First, there is the Prologue which contains verses 1-3, and then it is sectioned off with verses 4-7, and lastly verses 8-13. Inside chapter 13, A-B-A style is used again, sequencing A as the first section, B as the second, and A as the final section. The order of this chapter is organized in ascending intensity (Collins, 471-472). [4]

StyleEdit

Throughout 1 Corinthians 13, Paul uses first person in his writing. Some scholars suggest that when Paul says "I," he is merely referring to any individual, yet many argue the contrary stating that Paul is solely referring to himself. Evidence to support this statement is the consistency that seems to follow throughout the rest of Paul's letter to Corinth. A possibility of irony is also introduced in this chapter because of the challenge he is giving the Corinthians. These people "pursue spiritual gifts, but Paul will show a more excellent way. His encomium on love is prompted by the fact that in their pursuit of spiritual gifts the Corinthians follow a hierarchy he cannot accept" (Collins, 472- 473). [5] The style in this passage changes between verses 4-7, and the style becomes "Jewish parenesis, or concrete directions, and the form is didactic (instruction) rather than hymnic" (praise) (Soards, 273). [6] The style then changes in verse 8 to a more elaborate argument, rather than wisdom sayings in the previous verses (Soards, 274). [7] As far as the genre of this passage, many different opinions and ideas have been suggested. It is considered to be a preciatory speech, a deliberative rhetoric, an elegy, and lastly as an encomium with five divided parts for organization. These five sections consist of the prologue, birth and upbringing, acts, comparison, and epilogue. This Chapter is considered to be a unified entity rather than collection of different pieces of writing (Garland, 606-607). [8]

PurposeEdit

1 Corinthians was a letter written by the Apostle Paul, addressing the Corinthians. The purpose of this passage is heavily disputed, but with proper contextual analysis, the reader can find that this passage is not one to be read at weddings in order to discuss how the new couple should with one another, but rather it is a continuation of the issues that Paul has been discussing with the Corinthians on their gifts and how love should be at the center of all of their actions, not self interest. This chapter addresses the connection of our spiritual gifts with the love of God and our relationship with him. These actions of love in Chapter 13 are a representation of the presence of God himself. In this Chapter, Paul really is saying that love is showing empathy and sincere concern for one's community, rather than being motivated by self interest and personal gratification. It important to recognize that this chapter does not mention God once, but Paul's purpose is to express the connection between humans and God's love in Christ. The issues addressed in vss. 4-7 were all contemporary issues that the Corinthians were facing predominantly during their lives. Paul is trying to call out the Corinthians on their problems, and show they that the real issue at hand is not whose spiritual gifts are greater than the others, but rather the issues is their lack of love for one another. According to Paul, Christ-like love is not represented by the actions of the Corinthians and this lack of love is the root of all of their problems. The purpose of this chapter is also to recognize the call of lifestyle God asks of us, and draw out the true issues in the Church (Garland, 605-608). [9]

ThemesEdit

Immorality (including prevalent sexual immorality), Conduct of the Church, Character development, and keeping a pure heart.

Structural AnalysisEdit

  • Speech of Men (v. 1-3)
    • Speech without love
    • Faith without love
    • Giving to the poor without love
  • What Love is and is Not (v. 4-7)
    • What Love is
      • Love is patient
      • Love is kind
    • What Love is Not
      • Love does not envious
      • Love does not boast
      • Love is not pride
      • Love does not disrespect other people
      • Love does not look for solely personal interest
      • Love is not anger
  • Knowledge (v. 8-12)
    • Knowledge is not forever
    • Perfection coming and the imperfect leaving
    • Being like a child
  • What is left (v. 13)
    • Faith
    • Hope
    • Love

ParaphraseEdit

(v. 1) Even if my speech is holy, words are merely an obnoxious noise if I do not love.

(v. 2) If God has given the gift of prophecy and knowledge, with a faith that can move mountains, it means nothing unless I have love.

(v. 3) If I give of myself entirely, ridding myself of all material possessions, yet still do not have love, I have nothing.

(v. 4) Love is always patient, kind, without envy, without boasting, and never proud.

(v. 5) Love is not rude and selfish, angered easily, or keeps a list of what you have done wrong.

(v. 6) Love finds joy in truth rather than evil.

(v. 7) Love stands through everything, always protecting, persevering, trusting, and hoping.

(v. 8) Love will never fall short. But where there are prophesies, there will be no more; mouths will be silenced; knowledge will dissipate.

(v. 9) We know in part and prophesy apart.

(v. 10) When perfection arrives, all imperfections go away.

(v. 11) When I was a kid, I thought and spoke as a kid, and when I became an adult I put those ways behind me.

(v. 12) Our reflection in a mirror is not clear, but we can still see face to face. In the same way, I may only know a portion, but later will know completely just as God completely knows me inside out.

(v. 13) Only three still exist and will indefinitely: faith, hope, and love. Of all of them, Love is the greatest.

Verse-by-Verse AnalysisEdit

Contextual Pre-verse Analysis: Vss. 1-3Edit

13:1 "If I speak in the tongues of men and of angels, but have not love, I am only a resounding gong or a clanging cymbal."

The word agape, meaning love, is often used in the New Testament describing the intimate and close affections of God and Jesus for people. This could also be described as being a word describing communal relationship, and covenant between Christians and one another (Mare, 267) [10] Some scholars suggest that the "tongues" being referred to here is the gift of speaking in tongues, yet it should recognized that these "tongues" can be reference to speech of "any kind" (Morris, 177). [11] Contrary to positive implication of tongues of angels presumably referring to holy speech of angels, the reference to "tongues" may be referring to heathen worship, "especially the worship of Dionysus and Cybele" because "the clanging of cymbals and the braying of trumpets" was a characteristic of these "heathens" (Barclay, 117). [12] This suggests that "even the coveted gift of tongues was no better than the uproar of heathen worship if love was absent" (Barclay, 117). [13] Further expanding on the "resounding gong or clanging cymbal," the gong was more than likely really bronze because Corinth was very famous for its bronzes. Whatever noisy device this is, it is clearly something very loud. Some suggest that it may be a trumpet (Morris, 177-178). [14]


13:2 "If I have the gift of prophecy and can fathom all mysteries and all knowledge, and if I have a faith that can move mountains, but have not love, I am nothing."

It should be noted in this verse that prophecy more than likely is referenced to preaching. According to William Barclay, "there are two kinds of preachers. There is a preacher whose one aim is to save the souls of his people and who woos them with the accents of love...On the other hand there is a preacher who dangles his hearers over the flames of hell and gives the impression that he would rejoice in their damnation as much as in their salvation" (Barclay, 118). [15] Furthering this discussion, the second type of preaching should be addressed that this type of preaching may in fact scare individuals, but it will not show love, and it will not save individuals.


13:3 "If I give all I possess to the poor and surrender my body to the flames, but have not love, I gain nothing."

In this verse, it is suggested by scholars that Paul is stating that even if you give all of your material possessions to those who are poor, that does not mean that you did it out of pure love. Also, Paul is saying that you can be persecuted and martyred for your faith, but still do so not out of love for others (Mare, 268). [16] Ending this section, Paul concludes his point with this verse that "religious action is meaningless unless encompassed by agape" (Hays, 228). [17]

Passage of Focus: Vss. 4-7Edit

13:4 "Love is patient, love is kind. It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud."

Verse 4 gives a collection of descriptive words of love reflecting both a positive and negative nature. The positive descriptors include patience and kindness, and the negative descriptors include envy, pride, and boasting. By saying that love is patient, Paul is basically stating that love is slow to become resentful (Mare, 268). [18] The nature of these descriptors is poetic personification. The positive descriptive words are also words that the author, Paul uses to describe God in Romans 2:4. Clearly the list of negative aspects that begin in this verse are in reference to the bad behaviors of the Corinthians which are described throughout the rest of Corinthians (Hays, 226). [19] When boast is used in this passage, the Greek verb translates to perpereuomai, which is only found in this verse in this entire New Testament. Some of the earliest translations such as Robertson and Plummer translate to it "does not play the braggart" or "ostentation is the chief idea" (Earle, 82). [20] The examination of these words is important because then we can truly find out what Paul meant by describing what love is and is not. By personifying love in these verses, the superiority of these acts is revealed. Paul never uses adjectives in this chapter in order to describe love, but rather only uses verbs. This shows the reader that love is something that continually lives and moves, it is not something easily described as just one action, but rather many. In this passage, love is not just an emotion, but it is an action shown defined by what it does do, and does not do as we can see in verse 5. Love is a display for these people that creates distinguishable characteristics of followers of Christ (Garland, 616). [21]


13:5 "It is not rude, it is not self-seeking, it is not easily angered, it keeps no record of wrongs."

Some scholars suggest that the reference to rude behavior in this verse may be directed towards the "disorderly conduct at worship referred to in 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 and in 1 Corinthians 14" (Mare, 268). [22] This verse's purpose is to state exactly what love is not. Verses 5-6 contain a list of five things that love is not, re-emphasizing "love's all encompassing scope (Sampley, 953). [23] The Greek verb logizomai is used in this verse which can be taken in a metaphorical sense of "take into account" and it could be noted that this was a favorite word of the Apostle Paul, used 27 times in his epistles (Earle, 83). [24]

Verse 5 in King James Version states "thinks no evil," whereas the New International Version says that love "keeps no records of wrong." These differences in translation can complete change the meaning of the verse. To "think no evil" gives an inaccurate depiction as to what the verse is attempting to state. The core meaning of this verse, in the New International Version of the Bible, is to keep no records of wrong which in turn keeps from "violating loves nature" (Mare, 268). [25]


13:6 "Love does not delight in evil but rejoices with the truth."

Verse 6 is the end to Paul's list of eight different negative behaviors that do not reflect love. Some bible translations of this passage do not use the word evil, but rather "unrighteousness" (New American Standard Version) or rather the literal translation from the root adikia, "wrongdoing." Even then, some may say that it means injustice. This does not change the meaning of the passage significantly. As far as the positive note at the end of this verse, truth, more than likely refers to morality, alike the Johannine tradition (Hays, 227). [26]


13:7 "It always protects, always trusts, always hopes, always perseveres."

Verse 7 is said to describe love "covering the faults of others rather than delighting in them" (Mare, 268). [27] The end of this verse here is a strong conclusion to this section of 1 Corinthians 13. Paul uses "four strong verbs that characterize positively the action of agape (Hays, 228). [28] Other implications of this verse include instructions to an individual to be "trusting, optimistic, and willing to endure persecution" (Mare, 268). [29] The first verb used in the verse was one that Paul had already previously used to describe his actions as an apostle in 1 Cor. 9:12: he will "bear anything rather than put an obstacle in the way of the gospel of Christ." This emphasizes Paul's characteristics as a model of agape to the Corinthians "in his long suffering apostolic role" which presents his ideals of love through his letter as well as personal actions (Hays, 228). [30]

In reference to the Greek root of protects, we get the verb stego which then later translates to a roof. The literal meaning taken from this is "to cover closely, to protect by covering" (Earle, 83). [31] There are only two other place in the New Testament where this verb is used, and that is in 1 Thessalonians 3:1, 5 and 1 Corinthians 9:12. If the modern day translations were looked up, this translation referring to a roof or covering would not be apparent. The interpreter must look up the original Greek roots of the words in the passage.

End Contextual Analysis: Vss. 8-12Edit

13:8 "Love never fails. But where there are prophecies, they will cease; where there are tongues, they will be stilled; where there is knowledge, it will pass away."

By combining information on verse 10 from The Expositor's Biblical Commentary (see v. 10 analysis), and the implications on being "perfect," the reader can assume that "prophesies" refers to "direct, inspired revelatory communication from the Holy Spirit or possibly to some special aid given by the Spirit to understand and present truth already revealed, as given in the written Scriptures" (Mare, 268-269). [32] When referring to love in this verse, the connection can be drawn between God's infinite self, and love in general. Previously, v. 7 talks of hope, and Paul never makes reference to God having hope, but God is said to love. This love is unending because God's love is said to be the root of all earthly love (Sampley, 954). [33]


13:9 "For we know in part and we prophesy in part,"

Verse 9 is a description as to why knowledge and prophecy will disappear. Some scholars suggest that this "is an example of Christian agnosticism, which defines as the recognition of present limitation, combined with the confidence in the coming of full truth" (Garland, 622). [34]


13:10 "but when perfection comes, the imperfect disappears."

Verse 10 is merely stating that the reason why prophesies, tongues, and knowledge will disappear is because they are "imperfect and partial" (Mare, 268). [35] It should be noted though that Paul does not say when these things will discontinue to exist, and some scholars have suggested that Paul was referring to the need of miraculous gifts disappearing at the end of the apostolic period (Mare, 268). [36] This connects to the use of the word "prophesies" in v. 8 by the reference towards the completion of the canon at the end of the first century A.D. [37] "Since love endures forever, it is superior to these imperfect gifts no matter how impressive they might seem in this present age" (Garland, 620). [38]


13:11 "When I was a child, I talked like a child, I thought like a child, I reasoned like a child. When I became a man, I put childish ways behind me."

When it comes to the translation of Childish ways, the literal Greek root translation can refer to ways or things. If the term is referenced to "things," the reader could interpret this passage as adults putting their literal, physical objects and toys from their youth such as dolls away, but if the term "ways" is used, the reader could interpret those ways as being an adults reaction to circumstances in life (Earle, 84) [39] This could in turn imply an immaturity on the individuals being discussed.


13:12 "Now we see but a poor reflection as in a mirror; then we shall see face to face. Now I know in part; then I shall know fully, even as I am fully known."

This verse was one to put knowledge into perspective. Paul by far knew more than the Corinthians he was writing to, and yet he still recognizes that he doesn't know everything, and only knows partially what is to be known. By stating that "then he shall fully know" he is saying that at the end of the ages he will know far more than he currently knows. The discussion of knowledge is used to put the idea of love into perspective (Sampley, 955). [40]

Vs. 13Edit

13:13 "And now these three remain: faith, hope and love. But the greatest of these is love."

Stressing the importance of love in his conclusion, Paul is saying that "Great as faith and hope are, love is still greater. A faith without love is cold, and hopes without love is grim. Love is the fire which kindles faith and it is the light which turns hope into certainty" (Barclay, 126). [41] Concluding perfectly with the final word, love, characteristics of God can be seen through the interpretation of this passage. "God cannot be said to exercise faith or hope, but he certainly loves, and indeed is love" (Morris, 185). [42] We as the readers should not take the order Paul lists faith, hope, and love in precisely, because that was not Paul's intention. Instead, we should just recognize that love is the greatest of virtues desirable in any individual (Morris, 185). [43] When referring to faith, hope and love, some scholars state that these are what lie at the heart of the Christian life. "Paul cannot imagine life in Christ without each part of the triad being in place and fully functioning; all three must remain whatever else may come and go or change or however different one believer is from another" (Sampley, 955). [44]

Word StudyEdit

LoveEdit

By far, the word love is the most important and crucial word to be analyzed in this chapter of Corinthians. The main reason behind this is because the central theme is love being personified as to what it looks like in action. We can see this most easily in vss. 4-7 where love is described as being patient, kind, without envy, etc. All of these characteristics are not feelings of an individual, but rather actions. There are notable variants in translation that should be recognized such as the use of love in the King James Version of the bible. In the KJV, "charity" is replaced for love which is interesting because the "english word charity has never risen to the height of the Apostle's argument. At best it does but signify a kindly interest in and forbearance towards others. It is far from suggesting the ardent, active, energetic principle which the apostle had in view" (Earle, 79). [45]


There are three Greek verbs for the word love. These words consist of "eran, philein, and agapan" (all of which are in the infinitive forms). Some translations of the word Agape revert to Agapan which refers to the love of God, often translated into "to show love." Agapan is also known as agape which is the highest regarded word for love in the New Testament. The verb of this word, agapao, is found 142 times in the New Testament, and the King James Version translates love 135 times. The noun agape is found 116 times in the Bible, translated into love 86 times, and charity 27 times (Earle, 78-80). The significance of how often the verb agape appears in the bible can give the reader an idea of just how important love must be. If it appears this many times in the Bible in general, this must be one of the key points the author's of the Canon were trying to get across.The other forms of agape do not particularly apply to this passage, so further analysis of them will not be discussed.


It is crucial to pay attention to the role of Paul in the writing in this letter. There are many bias, or personal opinions that come into effect in the presentation of Paul's letter to the people in Corinth. One of the most vital aspects to living out the true, full potential for a Christian's life was to focus on love as the center of their faith. To Paul, this was a given. Every single letter Paul wrote in the bible had the term, love, written at least once. This is what "lies at the heart of all true Christian theology and ethics, and is important for a believer's sense of security" (Hawthorne, 576). [46] The source of love according to Paul comes through an individual's relationship with God, and we can only do this through the Holy Spirit. According to Paul, love is never merely a simple, self-attained attribute, but rather is the result of a life transformed by God's grace, and changes our hearts. When our hearts are changed, so are our actions. Often in Paul's letters, he encourages the people he is writing to, to love through a form of prayer such as in Phillipians 1:9. This can be applied to societies of any day and age because Paul implies that our actions of love will come from our relationship with God, and if anything, they would be somewhat natural (Hawthorne, 576-577). [47] To Paul, love is not solely an action, but it is a state of being. Emotion must be brought into this conversation. These verses are addressing the sincerity that must be behind the actions of caring for others. Paul is trying encourage all of the readers of his letters to show affection for one another, and do so out of a pure intentioned heart (Hawthorne, 577). [48]


Concluding the end of Chapter 13, Paul says that love never fails, and the greatest attribute of all is love. From other letters Paul has written, the implication that faith is greater than love does appear. To Paul, the "expression of love is clearly conditioned by certain theological and moral considerations of critical important; and when these are threatened, harsh words may be the truest form of love and not a violation of it" (Hawthorne, 578). [49]

PatientEdit

In the English version of the Old Testament, the word patient/patience/patiently does not appear very often. When pertaining to the New Testament though, it occurs more frequently in the King James Version. This reference could also be to the patience the Corinths needed for their modern day in order to stay strong in their faith. Other references to this word may give it a better meaning as endurance, or steadfastness (Buttrick, 676). [50]


Words for Further Study (from the NIV version)Edit

Vs. 1: Tongues, Men, Angels, Gong, Clanging Symbol

Vs. 2: Gift, Prophesy, Mysteries, Knowledge, Faith, Mountains

Vs. 3: Poor, Surrender, Flames

Vs. 4: Patient, Kind, Envy, Boast, Proud

Vs. 5: Rude, Self-seeking, Angered, Record of Wrongs

Vs. 6: Evil, Truth

Vs. 7: Protects, Trusts, Hopes, Perseveres

Vs. 8: Prophesies, Tongues, Knowledge

Vs. 9: Prophesy

Vs. 10: Perfection, Imperfect

Vs. 11: Child, Man, Ways

Vs. 12: Reflection, Mirror, Face, Know/Known

Vs. 13: Faith, Hope

Observations and Interpretive QuestionsEdit

  • Was Paul speaking from personal experience, possibly from observing specific individuals when it came to him discussing the poor, and that they should not give to the poor unless they had love in their hearts?
  • Is the love being talked about metaphorical in any sense?
    • In such a way that not only are the descriptions given personified, but they described situationally as well?
  • Were some of the ideas that Paul used in this chapter taken from scripture already written?
    • Ex: The reference to being child like
  • Is 1 Corinthians 13 in ways, a summary of all of Paul's letters he has ever written?
  • What were Paul's personal "childish ways" he put behind him?
  • Is Paul humble in any sense about his knowledge?
    • Ex: reference to knowing in part (v. 12)

Theological Implications and Application to TodayEdit

1 Corinthians 13 is a chapter that is accessible and applicable to generations of any time frame. It is one that addresses the core characteristics of what it means to be a Christian, and these things will never change no matter the generation. To be a follower of Christ is to take a stand on the values of faith, hope and love, with love prevailing above all else. This chapter of Corinthians is addressing themes of integrity, and of the heart. Paul is saying that we need to use love as the driving characteristic of what motivates our actions. Actions without love, are meaningless. The definition of love in this passage takes on many forms, and ultimately the reader can take from it that with Christ in our lives, our behaviours will naturally take on positive characteristics that reflect Christ through us.


Love in this chapter is not solely an emotion, but it is our actions that we should show towards other people. To love all others is to get to the core of what Christ intended for our lives; the very essence and purpose of his life. We can also apply this to our lives by thinking about our intentions and motives behind the actions we take, particularly positions of authority. If an individual for example is in a position of leading music at church, they should examine why they want to play for the church, because if their intentions are not to glorify God, then they are not out of love. Such an example could easily be shown as the worship leader being a person who hopes to glorify and self exalt themselves by being the one in front of the crowd that everyone looks at. This same concept can be applied to any leadership position, not just in the Church. To take on a Christ-like attitude in all areas of our lives, is to show love in every aspect of our lives. Whether in the corporate world, or in the Church, as followers of God we should make sure that we are expressing genuine care in our actions for the people that surround us on a daily basis. Chapter 13 is not referring to modern day societies interpretation of love, or rather in a sexual manner, but in actions and deeds that come from a sincere heart that hopes to help brothers and sisters in Christ.

Works CitedEdit

  1. Barclay, William. the Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  2. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  3. http://www.ebibleteacher.com/imagehtml/images/thumbnails/Pauls%20Letters%20to%20Churches%20800.jpg
  4. Collins, Raymond F. Sacra Pagina: First Corinthians. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999.
  5. Collins, Raymond F. Sacra Pagina: First Corinthians. Collegeville: The Liturgical Press, 1999.
  6. Soards, Marion L. 1 Corinthians: New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.
  7. Soards, Marion L. 1 Corinthians: New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody: Hendrickson Publishers, 1999.
  8. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  9. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  10. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  11. Morris, Leon. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: 1 Corinthians. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985.
  12. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  13. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  14. Morris, Leon. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: 1 Corinthians. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985.
  15. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  16. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  17. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  18. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  19. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  20. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vol. 4. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1979.
  21. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  22. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  23. Sampley, Paul J. The New Interpreter’s Bible: 1 Corinthians. Vol. 10. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002.
  24. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vol. 4. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1979.
  25. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  26. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  27. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  28. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  29. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  30. Hays, Richard B. Interpretation: A Bible Commentary for Teaching and Preaching. First Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1997.
  31. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vol. 4. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1979.
  32. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  33. Sampley, Paul J. The New Interpreter’s Bible: 1 Corinthians. Vol. 10. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002.
  34. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  35. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  36. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  37. Mare, Harold W. The Expositor's Bible Commentary. Vol. 10. Grand Rapids: Zondervan House, 1976.
  38. Garland, David E. 1 Corinthians: Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2003.
  39. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vol. 4. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1979.
  40. Sampley, Paul J. The New Interpreter’s Bible: 1 Corinthians. Vol. 10. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002.
  41. Barclay, William. The Daily Study Bible Series: The Letters to the Corinthians. Louisville: John Knox Press, 1975.
  42. Morris, Leon. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: 1 Corinthians. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985.
  43. Morris, Leon. Tyndale New Testament Commentaries: 1 Corinthians. Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1985.
  44. Sampley, Paul J. The New Interpreter’s Bible: 1 Corinthians. Vol. 10. Nashville: Abingdon, 2002.
  45. Earle, Ralph. Word Meanings in the New Testament. Vol. 4. Kansas City: Beacon Hill, 1979.
  46. Hawthorne, Gerald F. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1993.
  47. Hawthorne, Gerald F. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1993.
  48. Hawthorne, Gerald F. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1993.
  49. Hawthorne, Gerald F. Dictionary of Paul and his Letters. Downers Grove: Inter-Varsity, 1993.
  50. Buttrick, George A. The Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible. Vol. K-Q. New York: Abingdon, 1962.
Last modified on 23 February 2014, at 14:40