Table illustrating child development stagesEdit
|Age||Motor||Speech||Vision and hearing||Social development|
|4-6 weeks||Smiles at mother|
|3 months||Prone:head held up for prolonged periods. No grasp reflex||Talks a great deal||Follows dangling toy from side to side. Turns head round to sound||Squeals with pleasure appropriately. Discriminates smile|
|5 months||Holds head steady. Goes for objects and gets them. Objects taken to mouth||Enjoys vocal play||Smiles at mirror image|
|6 months||Transfers objects from one hand to the other. Pulls self up to sit and sits erect with supports. Rolls over prone to supine. Palmer grasp of cube||Double syllable sounds such as 'mumum' and 'dada'||Localises sound 45cm lateral to either ear||May show 'stranger shyness'|
|9-10 months||Wiggles and crawls. Sits unsupported. Picks up objects with pincer grasp||Babbles tunefully||Looks for toys dropped||Apprehensive about strangers|
|1 year||Stands holding furniture. Stands alone for a second or two, then collapses with a bump||Babbles 2 or 3 words repeatedly||Drops toys, and watches where they go||dressing, waves goodbye, understands simple commands|
|18 months||stairs holding onto Handrail|rail. Begins to jump with both feet. Can build a tower of 3 or 4 cubes and throw a ball||'Jargon'. Many intelligible words||cup with both hands. Feeds self with a spoon|
Cognitive and creativeEdit
Creative development could very well be seen as how the child learns in its environment through experimenting in different ways of doing everything. 6-9 months
- Looks for fallen objects by 7 months
- Plays ‘peek-a-boo’ games
- Cannot understand “no” or “Danger”
- Watches people, objects, and activities in the immediate environment.
- Shows awareness of distant objects (15 to 20 feet away) by pointing at them.
- Responds to hearing tests (voice localization); however, loses interest quickly and, therefore, may be difficult to test informally.
- Follows simple instructions.
- Reaches for toys that are out of reach but visible
- Recognizes objects in reverse
- Drops thing intentionally and repeats and watches object
- Imitates activities like playing drum loudly
Image:Babysmile.jpg|thumb|A baby's first smile usually occurs four to six weeks after birth.
- Average length is 50.8-68.6 cm grows approximately 2.54 cm per month.
- Weighs an average of 3.6-7.3 kg
- Gains approximately 0.11-0.22 kg per week.
- Respiration rate is approximately thirty to forty breaths per minute.
- Normal body temperature ranges from 35.7-37.5°C.
- Head and chest circumference are nearly equal.
- Head circumference increases approximately 1.9 cm per month until two months, then increases 1.6 cm per month until four months. Increases are an important indication of continued brain growth.
- Continues to breathe using abdominal muscles.
- Posterior fontanel closes by the second month.
- Anterior fontanel closes to approximately 1/2 inch (1.3 cm).
- Skin remains sensitive and easily irritated.
- Legs may appear slightly bowed.
- Cries with tears.
- Eyes begin moving together in unison (binocular vision).
- Rooting and sucking reflexes are well developed.
- Swallowing reflex and tongue movements are still immature; continued drooling and inability to move food to the back of the mouth.
- Grasp reflex gradually disappears.
- Landau reflex appears near the middle of this period; when baby is held in a prone (face down) position, the head is held upright and legs are fully extended.
- Grasps with entire hand; strength insufficient to hold items. Holds hands in an open or semi-open position.
- Muscle strength and control improving; early movements are large and jerky; gradually become smoother and more purposeful.
- Raises head and upper body on arms when in a prone position.
- Turns head side to side when in a supine (face up) position; near the end of this period can hold head up and in line with the body.
- Upper body parts are more active: clasps hands above face, waves arms about, reaches for objects.
- Puts on 0.5 kg per month in weight, doubling birth weight
- Grows about 1.3 cm in length per month; average length is 69.8-73.7 cm.
- Head and chest circumferences are basically equal.
- Head circumference increases approximately 3/8 inch (0.95 cm) per month untl six to seven months, then 3/16 inch (0.47 cm) per month; head circumference should continue to increase steadily, indicating healthy, ongoing brain growth.
- Breathing is abdominal; ranges from twenty-five to fifty breaths per minute, depending on activity; rate and patterns vary from infant to infant.
- Teeth begin to appear, with upper and lower incisors coming in first. Gums may become red and swollen, accompanied by increased drooling, chewing, biting, and mouthing of objects.
- Legs may appear bowed; bowing gradually disappears as infant grows older.
- True eye color is established.
- Reflexive behaviors are changing:
- Blinking reflex is well established
- Sucking reflex becomes voluntary
- Moro reflex disappears
- When lowered suddenly, infant throws out arms as a protective measure.
- Swallowing reflex appears allows infant to move solid foods from front of mouth to the back for swallowing.
- Picks up objects using finger and thumb (pincer grip).
- Reaches for objects with both arms simultaneously; later reaches with one hand or the other.
- Transfers objects from one hand to the other; grasps object using entire hand (palmar grasp).
- Handles, shakes, and pounds objects; puts everything in mouth.
- Able to hold bottle.
- Sits alone without support, holding head erect, back straightened, and arms propped forward for support
- Pulls self into a crawling position by raising up on arms and drawing knees up beneath the body; rocks back and forth, but generally does not move forward.
- Lifts head when placed on back.
- Can roll over from back or stomach position.
- May accidentally begin scooting backwards when placed on stomach; soon will begin to crawl forward.
- Infants reach approximately 1-1/2 times their birth length by first birthday
- Weight increases by approximately 0.5 kg per month; birth weight nearly triples by one year of age: infants weigh an average of 9.6 kg.
- Respiration rates vary with activity: typically, twenty to forty-five breaths per minute.
- Body temperature ranges from 96.4°F to 99.6°F (35.7-37.5°C); environmental conditions, weather, activity, and clothing still affect variations in temperature.
- Head and chest circumference remain equal.
- Continues to use abdominal muscles for breathing.
- Anterior fontanel begins to close.
- Approximately four upper and four lower incisors and two lower molars erupt.
- Arm and hands are more developed than feet and legs (cephalocaudal development); hands appear large in proportion to other body parts.
- Legs may continue to appear bowed.
- Feet appear flat as arch has not yet fully developed.
- Visual acuity is approximately 20/100.
- Both eyes work in unison (true binocular coordination).
- Can see distant objects (15 to 20 feet away) and points at them.
- Reaches with one hand leading to grasp an offered object or toy.
- Manipulates objects, transferring them from one hand to the other.
- Explores new objects by poking with one finger.
- Uses deliberate pincer grasp to pick up small objects, toys, and finger foods.
- Stacks objects; also places objects inside one another.
- Releases objects or toys by dropping or throwing; cannot intentionally put an object down.
- Beginning to pull self to a standing position.
- Beginning to stand alone, leaning on furniture for support; moves around obstacles by side-stepping.
- Has good balance when sitting; can shift positions without falling.
- Creeps on hands and knees; crawls up and down stairs.
- Walks with adult support, holding onto adult's hand; may begin to walk alone.
Trust versus Mistrust (Erik Erikson)
Toddlers (12-24 months)Edit
- Rate of growth slows
- Height increases approximately 5cm- 7.6cm with an average height of 81cm – 89cm
- Weighs 9.6-12.3 kg; gains 0.13-0.25 kg per month; weight is now approximately 3 times the child's birth weight.
- Respiration rate is typically twenty-two to thirty breaths per minute; varies with emotional state and activity.
- Heart rate (pulse) is approximately 80 to 110 per minute.
- Head size increases slowly; grows approximately 1/2 inch (1.3 cm) every six months; anterior fontanel is nearly closed at eighteen months as bones of the skull thicken.
- Chest circumference is larger than head circumference.
- Rapid eruption of teeth; six to ten new teeth will appear.
- Legs may still appear bowed.
- Body shape changes; takes on more adult-like appearance; still appears topheavy; abdomen protrudes, back is swayed.
- Visual acuity is approximately 20/60.
- Crawling|Crawls skillfully and quickly.
- Stands alone with feet spread apart, legs stiffened, and arms extended for support.
- Gets to feet unaided.
- Most children walk unassisted near the end of this period; falls often; not always able to maneuver around obstacles, such as furniture or toys.
- Uses furniture to lower self to floor; collapses backwards into a sitting position or falls forward on hands and then sits.
- Enjoys pushing or pulling toys while walking.
- Repeatedly picks up objects and throws them; direction becomes more deliberate.
- Attempts to run; has difficulty stopping and usually just drops to the floor.
- Crawls up stairs on all fours; goes down stairs in same position.
- Sits in a small chair.
- Carries toys from place to place.
- Enjoys crayons and markers for scribbling; uses whole-arm movement.
- Helps feed self; enjoys holding spoon (often upside down) and drinking from a glass or cup; not always accurate in getting utensils into mouth; frequent spills should be expected.
- Helps turn pages in book.
- Stacks two to four objects.
- Enjoys object-hiding activities
- Early in this period, the child always searches in the same location for a hidden object (if the child has watched the hiding of an object). Later, the child will search in several locations.
- Passes toy to other hand when offered a second object (referred to as "crossing the midline"-an important neurological development).
- Manages three to four objects by setting an object aside (on lap or floor) when presented with a new toy.
- Puts toys in mouth less often.
- Enjoys looking at picture books.
- Demonstrates understanding of functional relationships (objects that belong together): Puts spoon in bowl and then uses spoon as if eating; places teacup on saucer and sips from cup; tries to make doll stand up.
- Shows or offers toy to another person to look at.
- Names many everyday objects.
- Shows increasing understanding of spatial and form discrimination: puts all pegs in a pegboard; places three geometric shapes in large formboard or puzzle.
- Places several small items (blocks, clothespins, cereal pieces) in a container or bottle and then dumps them out.
- Tries to make mechanical objects work after watching someone else do so.
- Responds with some facial movement, but cannot truly imitate facial expression.
- Produces considerable "jargon": puts words and sounds together into speech-like (inflected) patterns.
- Holophrastic speech: uses one word to convey an entire thought; meaning depends on the inflection ("me" may be used to request more cookies or a desire to feed self). Later; produces two-word phrases to express a complete thought (telegraphic speech): "More cookie," "Daddy bye-bye."
- Follows simple directions, "Give Daddy the cup."
- When asked, will point to familiar persons, animals, and toys.
- Identifies three body parts if someone names them: "Show me your nose (toe, ear)."
- Indicates a few desired objects and activities by name: "Bye-bye," "cookie"; verbal request is often accompanied by an insistent gesture.
- Responds to simple questions with "yes" or "no" and appropriate head movement.
- Speech is 25 to 50 percent intelligible during this period.
- Locates familiar objects on request (if child knows location of objects).
- Acquires and uses five to fifty words; typically these are words that refer to animals, food, and toys.
- Uses gestures, such as pointing or pulling, to direct adult attention.
- Enjoys rhymes and songs; tries to join in.
- Seems aware of reciprocal (back and forth) aspects of conversational exchanges; some turn-taking in other kinds of vocal exchanges, such as making and imitating sounds.
- Usually friendly toward others; less wary of strangers.
- Helps pick up and put away toys.
- Plays by themselves for short periods
- Enjoys being held and read to.
- Often imitates adult actions in play.
- Enjoys adult attention; likes to know that an adult is near; gives hugs and kisses.
- Recognizes self in mirror.
- Enjoys the companionship of other children, but does not play cooperatively.
- Beginning to assert independence; often refuses to cooperate with daily routines that once were enjoyable; resists getting dressed, putting on shoes, eating, taking a bath; wants to try doing things without help.
- May have a tantrum when things go wrong or if overly tired or frustrated.
- Exceedingly curious about people and surroundings; toddlers need to be watched carefully to prevent them from getting into unsafe situations.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (will)
- Seminars in child and adolescent psychiatry (second edition) Ed. Simon G. Gowers. Royal College of Psychiatrists (2005) ISBN 1-904671-13-6