Anatomy and Physiology of Animals/Glossary/A-B

A-B | C-D | E-F | G-H | I-J | K-L | M-N | O-P | Q,R,S | T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z

Word Meaning
A
Abdomen The part of the body below the diaphragm
Abomasum The final compartment of the stomach of ruminants.

This the ‘true’ stomach where muscular walls churn

the food and gastric juice is secreted

Absorption Passage of digested food from the gut into the blood
Accessory gland A gland that produces secretions that make up the liquid portion of semen
Acetylcholine A neurotransmitter released at a synapse
Acoustic Relating to sound
Active transport The movement of substances across a membrane against

the concentration gradient. Requires energy

Adipose tissue Connective tissue in which the cells are filled with fat or lipid
Adrenal cortex Outer portion of adrenal gland
Adrenal medulla Inner portion of adrenal gland
Albumin The most common of the proteins in the plasma
Aldosterone The hormone produced by the adrenal cortex
Alimentary Concerning nutrition
Alimentary canal The long canal from the mouth to the anus through which food passes as it is digested and absorbed
Alkaline Containing few hydrogen ions. pH above 7
Alveolus An air sac in the lung, where gas exchange takes place
Amino acids Molecules containing nitrogen that are the building blocks of proteins
Amphibian Vertebrate Class containing the frogs and toads
Amylases Enzymes that split carbohydrates like starch and glycogen into monosaccharides like glucose
Anaemia A condition involving a low number of red blood cells or haemoglobin in blood
Antagonistic muscles A pair of muscles that work together such that as one contracts the other relaxes and vice versa.
Anterior Nearer to the front of the body (usually used in human anatomy)
Anterior pituitary gland Anterior portion of pituitary gland
Antibodies Proteins made in response to a stimulating molecule called an antigen. The basis for the immune response
Anticoagulant A substance that prevents blood clotting
Antidiuretic A substance that inhibits urine production
Antidiuretic hormone A hormone produced by posterior pituitary gland that stimulates water

reabsorption from the kidney tubule

Antigens A substance that stimulates the body to produce an antibody
Anus The opening at the lower end of the rectum through which solid waste is eliminated.
Aorta The main artery to body and head from heart
Apex The pointed end of a cone shaped structure e.g. heart
Appendage A structure attached to the body
Aqueous humor The watery fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye
Arteriole A small, almost microscopic, artery
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Articulation The point of contact between bones. Where they move against each other
Appendage A structure attached to the body
Aqueous humor The watery fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye
Arteriole A small, almost microscopic, artery
Artery A blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart
Articulate To move against each other - as of bones
Articulation The point of contact between bones. Where they move against each other.

A joint. Point of contact between 2 bones

Atlas First cervical vertebra
Atom A unit of matter that comprises a chemical element
Atrioventricular valve A valve that prevents blood flow backwards from ventricle to atrium
Atrium (pl. atria) One of two cranial chambers of heart
Auditory ossicle One of 3 small bones in middle ear
Autonomic nervous system The part of the vertebrate nervous system that innervates smooth and cardiac muscle and

glandular tissues and governs involuntary actions. Consists of the sympathetic nervous

system and the parasympathetic nervous system.

Axillary lymph node A lymph node under junction of forelimb and body
Axis The second cervical vertebra
Axon A long extension from the neuron that carries nerve impulses away from the cell body
Ball and socket joint A synovial joint where rounded end of one bone fits into cup-shaped depression of another
B
Barb The part of the feather that sticks out of the shaft
Barbules The parts of a feather that grow out of the barbs. They have hooks and rolled edges to lock the barbs together
Basement membrane The thin membrane between epidermis and dermis
Basophil A white blood cell with granules in the cytoplasm
Biceps The muscle that extends from the shoulder to the elbow responsible for flexing the forearm
Bilateral Including both sides
Bile An alkaline secretion from liver that helps break down fats into small droplets
Binocular vision The placement of the eyes such that both see the same wide area but from slightly different angles
Binomial The two-part Latinized name of a species, consisting of genus and species names
Blastocyst A hollow ball of cells that develop from the fertilized ovum
Blind spot The area of retina at end of optic nerve where there are no receptor cells
Blood The fluid that circulates in the blood vessels
Blood pressure The pressure of blood on the walls of the blood vessels
Body cavity A space within the body that contains various organs
Bowman’s capsule The double walled globe at proximal end of nephron. Encloses glomerulus
Brain stem The part of the brain just above the spinal cord. Contains the medulla oblongata
Breed A race or variety
Bronchiole A branch of the bronchi in the respiratory system
Bronchus One of the large branches of the trachea
Buccal To do with the mouth
Last modified on 12 June 2009, at 16:04