Last modified on 27 November 2012, at 10:40

Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Vocational/Communications

Communications
Vocational
General Conference
See also Communications - Advanced
Skill Level 2 Answer-Keys 06.jpg
Year of Introduction: 1953
Contents

1. Do one of the following:Edit

a. Send and receive by International Morse Code at the rate of three words per minute using flashlight, whistle, mirror, buzzer, or key. (Five-letter words, minimum of 20 words.)Edit

1922 Chart of the Morse Code Letters and Numerals

Morse code is a method for transmitting information, using standardized sequences of short and long marks or pulses — commonly known as "dots" and "dashes" — for the letters, numerals and special characters of a message. Originally created for Samuel Morse's electric telegraph in the mid-1830s, it was also extensively used for early radio communication beginning in the 1890s. However, with the development of more advanced communications technologies, the widespread use of Morse code is now largely obsolete, apart from emergency use and other specialized purposes, including navigational radio beacons, and by CW (continuous wave) amateur radio operators. Morse code is the only digital modulation mode designed to be easily read by humans without a computer, making it appropriate for sending automated digital data in voice channels, as well as making it ideal for emergency signaling, such as by way of improvised energy sources that can be easily "keyed" such as by supplying and removing electric power (e.g. by switching a breaker on and off).

Morse code can be transmitted in a number of ways: originally as electrical pulses along a telegraph wire, but also as an audio tone, as a radio signal with short and long pulses or tones, or as a mechanical or visual signal (e.g. a flashing light). Because Morse code is transmitted using just two states — on and off — it was an early form of a digital code. International Morse code is composed of six elements:

  1. short mark, dot or 'dit' (·)
  2. longer mark, dash or 'dah' (-)
  3. intra-character gap (between the dots and dashes within a character)
  4. short gap (between letters)
  5. medium gap (between words)
  6. long gap (between sentences)

Those learning Morse are often taught to send and understand letters and other symbols at their full target speed, that is with normal relative timing of the dots, dashes and spaces within each symbol for that speed. Exaggerated spaces between symbols and words are used to give 'thinking time', which can be reduced with practice and familiarity. This makes the sound 'shape' of the letters and symbols easier to learn. This teaching method is referred to as the Farnsworth method. Another popular teaching method is the Koch method, which uses the full target speed from the outset, but begins with just two characters. Once strings containing those two characters can be copied with 90% accuracy, an additional character is added, and so on until the full character set is mastered.

As with other lists mnemonics may be used as a memory aid. Here is a United States version based on the NATO phonetic alphabet.

Letter Phonetic Morse Code Mnemonic
(explanation)
A Alpha ·- al-FA
(that's what it says!)
B Bravo -··· YEAH! *clap* *clap* *clap*
(applause)
C Charlie -·-· CHAR-lie's AN-gels
(1970s TV show)
D Delta -·· NEW or-leans
E Echo · hey!
F Foxtrot ··-· *step**step**BRUSH**step*
(that's how you foxtrot!)
or
get a HAIR-cut
G Golf --· HOLE IN one!
H Hotel ···· ho-li-day-inn
I India ·· bom-bay
J Juliet ·--- where-FORE ART THOU?
K Kilo -·- POUND for POUND
L Lima ·-·· li-MA pe-ru
(Lima is the capital city of Peru.)
M Mike -- LIKE MIKE
(Michael Jordan advertising jingle)
N November AU-tumn
O Oscar --- SUN-NY-DAY
(Sesame Street theme song --as in "Oscar the Grouch")
P Papa ·--· of DOC-TOR good
(from "Gypsies, Tramps and Thieves", by Cher.)
Q Quebec --·- A-LOU-et-TUH
(a song sung by French Canadians)
or
PAYDAY to-DAY
R Romeo ·-· ro-MER-o
"Romeo" in Spanish.
S Sierra ··· ne-va-da
(the Sierra Nevada)
T Tango - *DIP*
(like holding a dip during a tango for a few seconds.)
U Uniform ··- u-ni-FORM
(that's what it says!)
V Victor ···- *the first 4 notes of Beethoven's 5th]] (5 is the Roman numeral V*
W Whiskey ·-- don't DRINK IT
X X-ray -··- ON-ly the BONES
(that's all you see in an x-ray image.)
Y Yankee -·-- ON a PO-NY
(from Yankee Doodle)
Z Zulu --·· SHA-KA zu-lu
(name of famous Zulu king.)

b. Send and receive by semaphore code at the rate of seven words per minute using semaphore flags. (Five-letter words, minimum of 20 words.)Edit

The newer flag semaphore system uses two short poles with square flags, which a flagperson holds in different positions to signal letters of the alphabet and numbers. The flagperson holds one pole in each hand, and extends each arm in one of eight possible directions. Except for in the rest position, the flags cannot overlap. The flags are colored differently based on whether the signals are sent by sea or by land. At sea, the flags are colored red and yellow. While on land, they are red and white.

The following semaphore characters are presented as one would face the signalman (in other words, pretend you can see the signalman's face in the illustrations). The letters almost follow a perfect, regular pattern, but don't be fooled by the first several. J, V, and Y break the pattern. We present them here in alphabetical order, and then again by position in a series of circles.

Alphabetic OrderEdit

Semaphore Ready.svg
Rest position
Semaphore Numeric.svg
Numerals
Semaphore Error.svg
Attention
Semaphore Cancel.svg
Cancel
Semaphore Alpha.svg
A / 1
Semaphore Bravo.svg
B / 2
Semaphore Charlie.svg
C / 3 / Ack
Semaphore Delta.svg
D / 4
Semaphore Echo.svg
E / 5 / Error 9x's
Semaphore Foxtrot.svg
F / 6
Semaphore Golf.svg
G / 7
Semaphore Hotel.svg
H / 8
Semaphore India.svg
I / 9
Semaphore Juliet.svg
J / Letters
Semaphore Kilo.svg
K / 0
Semaphore Lima.svg
L
Semaphore Mike.svg
M
Semaphore November.svg
N
Semaphore Oscar.svg
O
Semaphore Papa.svg
P
Semaphore Quebec.svg
Q
Semaphore Romeo.svg
R
Semaphore Sierra.svg
S
Semaphore Tango.svg
T
Semaphore Uniform.svg
U
Semaphore Victor.svg
V
Semaphore Whiskey.svg
W
Semaphore X-ray.svg
X
Semaphore Yankee.svg
Y
Semaphore Zulu.svg
Z

By positionEdit

The Grand Circle Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Bravo.svg
B
Semaphore Charlie.svg
C
Semaphore Delta.svg
D
Semaphore Echo.svg
E
Semaphore Foxtrot.svg
F
Semaphore Golf.svg
G
A Circle No work.svg Semaphore Hotel.svg
H
Semaphore India.svg
I
Semaphore Kilo.svg
K
Semaphore Lima.svg
L
Semaphore Mike.svg
M
Semaphore November.svg
N
B Circle No work.svg No work.svg Semaphore Oscar.svg
O
Semaphore Papa.svg
P
Semaphore Quebec.svg
Q
Semaphore Romeo.svg
R
Semaphore Sierra.svg
S
C Circle No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg Semaphore Tango.svg
T
Semaphore Uniform.svg
U
Semaphore Yankee.svg
Y
Semaphore Cancel.svg
Cancel
D Circle No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg Semaphore Numeric.svg
Numerals
Semaphore Juliet.svg
J
Semaphore Victor.svg
V
E Circle No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg Semaphore Whiskey.svg
W
Semaphore X-ray.svg
X
F Circle No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg Semaphore Zulu.svg
Z

TipsEdit

When you are first learning semaphores, a good Bible text to practice with is Philippians 4:8, as it repeats the phrase "whatever is" several times. Since it is so repetitive, You should be able to quickly signal the "whatever is" portion to get your speed up. This verse contains all the letters of the alphabet except j, q, and z which can be learned afterwards.

Philippians 4:8 (NIV)

Finally, brothers, whatever is true, whatever is noble, whatever is right, whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable—if anything is excellent or praiseworthy—think about such things.


GraphicallyEdit

Semaphore Foxtrot.svgF Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore November.svgN Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Yankee.svgY No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Bravo.svgB Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Uniform.svgU Semaphore Echo.svgE No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore November.svgN Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Bravo.svgB Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Echo.svgE No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Golf.svgG Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Tango.svgT No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Papa.svgP Semaphore Uniform.svgU Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Echo.svgE No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Yankee.svgY No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Whiskey.svgW Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Victor.svgV Semaphore Echo.svgE Semaphore Romeo.svgR No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Delta.svgD Semaphore Mike.svgM Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Bravo.svgB Semaphore Lima.svgL Semaphore Echo.svgE No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

More TipsEdit

Learn some landmark letters first and commit them to memory. Groups of related letters are a good choice. For example, these three make straight lines:

Semaphore Delta.svgD Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Lima.svgL No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

These four are made by holding the flags 90° to one another, but all are at 45° to the signaler:

Semaphore Uniform.svgU Semaphore November.svgN Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore X-ray.svgX No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

These four are made by holding the flags 45° apart:

Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Tango.svgT No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

Most of these are fairly common letters (except for X), so knowing them will allow you to spell the better part of most words. Add an A and an S to the mix:

Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Sierra.svgS No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

and you can spell a quick sentence:

Semaphore Uniform.svgU Semaphore November.svgN Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore X-ray.svgX Semaphore Ready.svgRest Semaphore India.svgI Semaphore Sierra.svgS Semaphore Ready.svgRest No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg
Semaphore Alpha.svg
A
Semaphore Ready.svgRest Semaphore Hotel.svgH Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Tango.svgT Semaphore Romeo.svgR Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Delta.svgD Semaphore Ready.svgRest Semaphore Oscar.svgO Semaphore Sierra.svgS Semaphore Ready.svgRest No work.svg No work.svg No work.svg

c. Send and receive by International Morse Code at the rate of three words per minute using wigwag flags. (Five-letter words, minimum of 20 words.)Edit

In order to send Morse Code via wigwag flag, one must obviously first learn Morse Code. See section a for details. Second, one must know how to transmit dots and dashes with the wigwag flags. The sender holds two flags, one in each hand. The "rest" position is both flags straight up. To send a dot, the flag on the right is lowered straight out to the right and then raised again. To send a dash, the left flag is lowered straight out to the left and then raised again.

Historical NotesEdit

Communications was called Signaling until 1986 when it was discontinued. It was reintroduced the following year and renamed Communications.

ReferencesEdit