Last modified on 23 April 2011, at 03:28

# Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Recreation/Cycling - Advanced

Cycling - Advanced
Recreation
General Conference
Skill Level 2
Year of Introduction: 1976
Contents

## 1. Have the Cycling Honor.Edit

Instructions and tips for earning the Cycling honor can be found in the Recreation chapter.

## 7. Explain how the riding characteristics of a bicycle are affected by:Edit

### a. The geometry of the bicycle frame including:Edit

#### (2) Fork rakeEdit

Although the honor specifies "fork rate," the correct term is "rake." Technically, fork rake is the angle of the head-tube with reference to a line perpendicular to the ground. The closer to perpendicular, that is, the more steep the head-tube, the less "rake" the fork will have, where an angle further from perpendicular or shallow the head-tube angle (laid back geometry), the more rake. Motorcycles with high rake are often called "choppers."

The purpose of a steeper angle gives quicker, lighter, but less stable steering, a desirable feature in road racing and some mountain bikes. Shallower rake gives more stable, but slower handling, steering, better for general recreational bicycles and touring bikes.

Some people mistakenly believe that fork rake is the distance the front wheel is offset from an imaginary line extending through and parallel to the headtube. Technically, this is better termed "offset." Road racing and touring forks usually have a curve in the fork blade itself, while suspension forks have a curved fork crown (holds the fork legs and shocks to the steerer tube).

The purpose for fork offset is to absorb shock, and to prevent forks from cracking at the crown from the vertical pounding of road/trail vibration.

## 10. What are the advantages of drafting? Know how to safely and properly draft.Edit

Drafting (or slipstreaming) is a technique where two vehicles or objects align in a close group to reduce the overall effect of drag by using the lead object's slipstream. When high speeds are involved, drafting can significantly reduce the group's average energy expenditure needed to keep a certain speed and can slightly reduce the energy used by the lead vehicle or object.

Drafting is used to reduce wind resistance and is seen most commonly in bicycle racing, car racing, and speed skating, though drafting is occasionally used even in cross-country skiing and running. Some forms of triathlon allow drafting. Drafting occurs in swimming as well, both in open-water races (occurring in natural bodies of water) and in traditional races in competition pools. In a competition pool, a swimmer may hug the lane line that separates him/her from a swimmer of whom s/he is abaft, thereby taking advantage of the liquid slipstream in the other swimmer's wake.

In cycling, the main (largest) group of tightly packed cyclists in a race is called a peloton, while cyclists riding in straight-line formation, each (but the first) drafting behind the one in front of him, is called a pace line.

Drafting can be cooperative, in which several competitors take turns in the lead position (which requires the most effort and energy consumption). Or, it can be competitive or tactical, where one competitor will try to stay closely behind another leaving him or her more energy for a break-away push to the finish line.

## 11. Know the different clothing and safety equipment used in bicycling and the advan­tages of each.Edit

Different types of cycling have different clothing and protective gear. However, some are common to all cycling:

1. Helmet - protects head in the event of an accident, can provide sun shade and protection. Are required in some places, or for some ages.
2. Gloves - protects hands, usually the first body part to hit the ground in the event of an accident; padding in gloves eases fatigue and can provide some shock-absorption. Gloves protect road-riders' hands when cleaning glass, gravel, etc., from tires while riding.
3. Glasses - keeps bugs and debris out of the eyes, and keeps eyes from watering in cold weather or high-speed rides. Sunglasses reduce glare and keep eyes from becoming over-tired.

General safety equipment which is not required, but used by some cyclists includes:

1. Mirrors - these attach to the handlebars or rider's helmet for seeing cars/cyclists behind. These can be important for commuters, bicycle messengers, or those cycling in urban/suburban environments.
2. Bells - mountain bikers on hidden singletrack trails, or cyclists in busy areas may use handle-bar mouned, finger-activated bells to warn of approach.

Riding at night has it's own safety requirements:

1. Front and rear lights - these are required in some locales after sunset.
2. Reflectors - mounted on wheels, pedals, frame, seatpost or handlebars are the most common.
3. Reflective clothing - many makers of cycling clothing integrate refelctive tape or strips on shoes, pants/shorts, shirts/jackets or helmets.