This chapter deals with the basics of chemistry, the elements. An element is the most basic material you can get, so that it is what separates a car from air from water. Almost everything is composed of elements (we will talk about non-elemental materials in the end of the chapter). There are 118 element on the Periodic Table of Elements. There are 91 elements that are known to make up the earth, the landscape, plants, animals and people. However, furthur research has led scientists to believe that the first 98 elements all occur in nature.